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The Death and Life of Superman book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. I enjoyed it enough to give it four stars, but really, it's worth four-point-five. The four issues showing Superman's fight with Doomsday feature a "countdown" of panels: Comic book retailers ordered five million copies of Superman 75 in advance and many people who had never read comics bought the issue hoping it would become an expensive collector's item. Using more lethal tactics is the Last Son, a strange being who claims to be a resurrected Superman, but needs to repower off of a matrix egg in the Fortress.

From the Hardcover edition. The Death and Return of Superman Convert currency. Add to Basket. Compare all 5 new copies. Book Description Bantam Books, Never used!.

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Ships with Tracking Number! download with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory Xn. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Selfish Gene and the Heroics of the Last Kryptonian. Jump to Page. Search inside document. To quickly sum up, and spoilers to anyone reading Superman at this time, this short portrays exactly whats in the title.

One of the key elements of this short film is that basically no one except Landis speaks. He seems so flustered, so fed-up with Superman that hes drinking throughout the entire short. Because water is a polar molecule of the decomposition reactions of digestion. Water is an excellent temperature buffer.

Acids, bases, and salts 1. A base dissociates into OH- ions and cations 3. A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral; a pH below 7 indicates acidity; a pH above 7 indicates alkalinity.

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A pH buffer, which stabilizes the pH inside a cell, can be used in culture media. Organic Compounds 1. Organic Compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen. Carbon atoms form up to four bonds with other atoms. Organic Compounds are mostly or entirely covalently bonded, and many of them are large molecules. Functional groups 1.

A chain of carbon atoms forms a carbon skeleton. The letter R may be used to denote a particular functional group of atoms are responsible for most of the properties of organic molecules. Small organic molecules may combine into very large molecules called macromolecules.

Monomers usually bond together by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions that form water and a polymer. Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates are compounds consisting of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen in a 2: Isomers are two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures and properties - for example, glucose C6H12O6 and fructose C6H12O6.

Lipids - Lipids are a diverse group of compounds distinguished by their insolubility in water. Proteins - Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: A-T and G-C. Read and translate into Vietnamese digestion, buffer, dissociates, ions, anions, cations, neutral, functional groups, macromolecules, monomers, dehydration synthesis, isomers, carbohydrates, insolubility, fatty, acids, phospholipids, protein, conjugated, nucleic acids, strands, double helix, adenosine, release, triphosphat, regenerate B.

What are organic compounds? What are functional groups? What are carbohydrates? Can you give the definition of lipids and proteins? Bacteria are one-celled organisms. Because they have no nucleus, the cells are described as procaryotic cells. The three major basic shapes of bacteria are bacillus, coccus, and spiral. Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall; they divide by binary fission; and they may possess flagella.

Bacteria can use a wide range of chemical substances for their nutrition. Fungi 1. Fungi mushrooms, molds, yeasts have eucaryotic cells with a true nucleus. Most fungi are multicellular. Fungi obtain nutrients by absorbing organic material from their environment. Protozoans 1. Protozoans are unicellular eucaryotes and are classified according to their means of locomotion. Protozoans obtain nourishment by absorption or ingestion through specialized structures.

Algae 1. Algae are unicellular or multicellular eucaryotes that obtain nourishment by photosynthesis. Algae produce oxygen and carbohydrates that are used by other organisms.

Viruses 1. Viruses are noncellular entities that are parasites of cells. An envelope may surround the coating. Multicellular Animal Parasites 1. The principal groups of multicellular animal parasites are flatworms and roundworms, collectively called helminths. The microscopic stages in the life cycle of helminths are identified by traditional microbiologic procedures Modern Developments in Microbiology 1.

The study of AIDS, analysis of interferon action, and the development of new vaccines are among the current research interests in immunology.

New techniques in molecular biology and electron microscopy have provided tools for advancement of our knowledge of virology. The development of recombinant DNA technology has helped advance all areas of microbiology. Naming and Classifying Microorganisms 1. In a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus , each living organism is assigned two names.

The two names consist of a genus and specific epithet, both of which must be underlined or italicized. In the five-kingdom system, all organisms are classified into Procaryotae or Monera , Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

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Microbes and Human Welfare 1. Microorganisms degrade dead plants and animals and recycle chemical elements to be used by living plants and animals. Bacteria are used to decompose organic matter in sewage. Bioremediation processes use bacteria to clean up toxic wastes.

Bacteria that cause diseases in insects are being used as biological controls of insect pests. Biological controls are specific for the pest and do not harm the environment.

Using recombinant DNA, bacteria can produce important human proteins, such as insulin, beta- endorphin and hepatitis B vaccine. Microorganisms can be used to help produce foods. They are also food sources single-cell protein themselves. Microbes and Human Disease 1.

Everyone has microorganisms in and on the body; these make up the normal flora. Microbes in Our Lives 1. Living things too small to be seen with the naked eye are called microorganisms. Microorganisms are important in the maintenance or an ecological balance on Earth. Some microorganisms are used to produce tools and chemicals.

Some microorganisms cause disease. The golden age of microbiology Rapid advances in the science of microbiology were made between and Fermentation and Pasteurization 1. Pasteur found that yeast ferments sugars to alcohol and that bacteria can oxidize the alcohol to acetic acid. A heating process called pasteurization is used to kill bacteria in some alcoholic beverages and milk. Robert Koch proved that microorganisms transmit disease.

Vaccination 1. In a vaccination, immunity resistance to a particular disease is conferred by inoculation with a vaccine. In , Edward Jenner demonstrated that inoculation with cowpox material provides humans with immunity from smallpox. About , Pasteur discovered that a virulent bacteria could be used as a vaccine for chicken cholera; he coined the word vaccine. Modern vaccines are prepared from living virulent microorganisms or killed pathogens, and by recombinant DNA techniques.

Read and translate into Vietnamese bacterium, one-celled organisms, bacillus, coccus, spiral, flagella, peptidoglycan, binary fission, fungus fungi , procaryotic cells Eucaryotic cells, multicellular, protozoans, alga algae , photosynthesis, viruses, parasite, flatworms, roundworms, helminths, interferon, virology, epithet, italicize, welfare, bioremediation, spontaneous generation, maggot, broth, postulate B.

What are bacteria? What are fungi? What are protozoans? What are algae? What are microorganisms? Can you name and classify microorganisms? What are useful microbes in our lives? The first group of these changes includes growing interest by the consumer in the nutritional value of foods, distrust of manufactured products, the advent of nutritional labeling and the growing interest of governmental and legislative bodies.

A second group is the rapid development of food engineering and processing which results both in new foods and in traditional foods manufactured by unconventional methods. The latter is illustrated by interest in extrusion-cooking processes, reformed meat products, texturization and large-scale use of enzymatic methods.

These are applicable to a wide range of foods and not only result in novel preparations but can be used in the production of conventional and even staple foods such as biscuits and bread.

Extrusion cooking differs from conventional baking or any simple heat process and includes shearing effects on the foodstuffs as well as high temperatures and high pressures involving depolymerization of starches, cellulose and proteins with little-known effects on conventional value.

It has been reported that dietary-fiber-like substances are formed by starch-protein interaction. It is essential for nutritionists to keep abreast of such developments. When this product was re-introduced onto the British market during the 's - having been originally marketed during the 's, several brands were found to be low or even devoid of vitamin C.

Since the average person in Europe obtains about one third of his vitamin C from potatoes, rising to one-half in winter, and since there are many people above the average consumption, this product could have led to nutritional problems.

Since then most, if not all, such products contain added vitamin C-sufficient to make the manufactured product superior to the "natural" potato. It is surprising that no one in that particular industry predicted the problem. The partial destruction of thiamin in potatoes and 15 percent of the average intake of thiamin in Britain comes from potatoes white with sulfite also appears to have slipped by unnoticed.

It is difficult to place full responsibility for the nutritional content of food products upon the manufacturer - even American nutritional labeling is enforced only when the manufacturer makes nutritional claims. A manufacturer justifiably may claim that his product makes so small a contribution to the diet that it is unimportant whether it contains nutrients. On the other hand, a large part of our diet consists of processed foods so that between them the manufacturers should provide us with a significant part of our nutrient intake.

It might be argued that it is not possible to ban the purification of oils from their source materials, nor of purified sucrose although, together with alcohol, the average individual in the Western world is obtaining 60 to 70 percent of his energy intake from these three sources of nutritionally "empty calories".

The responsibility is usually placed on the public health authorities that are given the responsibility of educating the consumers. Changes in such thinking are already taking place and responsibility is coming to rest on the manufacturer. The British Department of Health published recommendations in Since meat is an important source of protein, iron and vitamins B1 and B12 and since textured vegetable products which may replace meat may contain enough phytate and dietary fiber to render the zinc unavailable, the novel foods must contain these nutrients in specified quantity and so far as the protein is concerned, with a minimum quality.

The responsibility for maintaining the nutritional value of the new form of food is being laid on the manufacturer. Instead our main problem is over consumption of calories, although we can never be certain that the majority of individuals are completely satisfying their nutritional requirements.

With the growing concern and processed foods in Europe, the U. Many losses are intentional or inevitable. Major losses occur when wheat or rice is milled but this is in response to consumer demand. Similarly, the extraction of oil from their nuts or seeds, and extraction of sugar and the preparation of fish filets involve discarding of protective nutrients.

The inevitable losses take place in any wet process, which leaches out water-soluble nutrients. When losses occur, they are usually in place of losses that occur in domestic cooking, not additional such losses.

Commercial preparation of frozen peas involves three minutes of blanching when 11 percent of the vitamin C was lost.

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When cooked for eventual consumption the product require only three minutes cooking in place of the normal six minutes and a further 30 percent loss resulted. In comparison, fresh peas cooked for six minutes plus 1. All canned and bottled foods are already cooked, all frozen and dried foods have been blenched and are partially cooked. It follows that domestic cooking must be included with the term processing.

It is clear those domestic preparation results in enormous losses in many homes - the evidence from institutional cooking verifies this - but there is still no evidence of any resultant nutritional harm to those consuming such foods India has made no such the Abe administration started prioritizing the promotion efforts. As a result, Chinese students studying abroad out- of outbound mobility in order to foster a globally-minded number Indian students and enter the global employment workforce for Japanese companies.

Until that point, study- market with an advantage. China has opened its doors to ing abroad had been mainly considered as a private choice, quality foreign university campuses attracting foreign as and governmental support for Japanese students to study well as local students. Unless India takes very aggressive abroad had been limited. First, the short duration of the program universities to develop support systems in order to broaden prevents time conflicts with other activities, such as looking the range of study abroad options.

Currently, Second, super-short-term programs tend to require lower this scholarship can be granted to students who participate participation fees than longer programs. The number of recipi- ing at the basic level are popular among Japanese students ents dramatically increased from in to 22, in because many students do not have sufficient foreign lan- The recent government support has been effective in in- creasing the number of students studying abroad for at least super-short-term programs; in comparison, the number of In order to leverage the current increase participants in longer-term programs has not increased in the numbers of super-short-term as much.

Similar observations have been made in the United States and other countries. By to provide opportunities for students to continue develop- , about 3, university students had studied abroad ing their global competencies after returning home. Through this scheme, by and developing mechanisms to allow students to easily the number of Japanese students who had studied abroad transfer credits earned abroad. Opportunities for interna- reached 14,, while the number of international students tional exchange on home campuses should be increased who had studied in Japan reached 15, In addition, from both in curricular activities, e.

In addition, in order to respond to the current skep- The aim of recipient universities was to send 58, stu- ticism about the effect of super-short-term study-abroad dents abroad through this project.

Collecting and assess- Unexpected Consequences and Challenges ing evidence on the value of the short-term study-abroad Although these scholarships and grants were not meant for experience to develop global competencies is necessary to this in particular, universities specifically increased oppor- build support.

Developing an environment for ties, had an affiliation with at least one pathway college. As students to utilize and build on their experiences during pathway colleges are a new institutional model in Canada, super-short-term study abroad programs will be key to mak- there are significant variations in the form they take.

Ownership We noted two forms of ownership within Canadian pathway Pathway Colleges: A New In- colleges: Of the 69 universities that have an affilia- stitutional Form in Canada tion with a pathway program, 22 32 percent of them have affiliations with pathway colleges that are private, for-profit Dale M.

McCartney and Amy Scott Metcalfe institutions. These private pathway colleges are usually Dale M. McCartney is a PhD candidate and Amy Scott Metcalfe is as- owned by large international educational companies, such sociate professor in higher education at the Department of Educational as Navitas or Study Group, and operate separately from the Studies, University of British Columbia, Canada.

These privately owned pathway colleges ney alumni. The remaining pathway colleges 68 percent are owned by the host institutions. These hosted pathway colleges are demarcated from the partner institu- austerity-focused governments. In an effort to increase tion, however, with their own admissions criteria, and with international undergraduate recruitment, Canadian uni- students attending most or all of their classes separate from versities are creating partnerships with or directly hosting the rest of the student body.

Of the 69 pathway colleges in linguistic credentials to allow direct entry to undergraduate our sample, 44 64 percent offer a mixed academic and degree programs at the university level. Whereas pathway linguistic program of study. In some cases, the academic colleges exist in other countries, the format is relatively new element of these programs represents a year or more of a in Canada, where they have gone largely unexamined to this four-year undergraduate degree, while in others it is a small point.

What little has been written on the topic has drawn number of courses. A smaller number of pathway be misled by the marketing materials regarding the like- colleges, 25 36 percent , offer language-only or English lihood of transfer to an established Canadian university. In these cases, Considering these concerns, we call for increased attention students are offered English or in Francophone regions, to the policies and practices of pathway colleges.

Drawing French language upgrading programs that promise to pre- on Canadian data, we offer a brief typology of these institu- pare them for the linguistic requirements of the partner tions, identify some possible concerns about their impact institution.

Pathway colleges that are owned and operated on public higher education systems, and suggest some di- by a public university are slightly more likely to be EAP pro- rections for future research. Within Canada, one concern is ing institutional form is the type of pathway, or transfer that pathway colleges may incentivize institutions to accept mechanism, that is offered to international students.

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A students who are unlikely to succeed in the partner institu- small number of pathway colleges 8 of 69, or 12 percent tion. Another is that pathway college students will not re- require students to reapply to the partner institution after ceive the same academic or student services as those at the completing the pathway program.

But the vast majority of parent institution, potentially isolating them from counsel- pathway colleges in Canada 88 percent promise students ling, ombudspersons, or other support systems. Similarly, direct entry to the partner university once they have suc- preliminary examinations suggest that the pathway college cessfully completed the pathway program. All of the corpo- emphasis on revenue generation and in some cases prof- rately owned pathway colleges offer direct entry to one or it means that instructors and staff are more likely to be more institutions.

Direct entry is a valuable recruiting tool non-union and precarious. The need for more research is that corporate partners may require before entering formal pressing, as the influence of pathway colleges on the public relationships with universities. Perhaps even more important is to examine these pathway colleges in the international context. Many of The pathway college relationship is be- the corporate partners operate in several countries, invit- coming commonplace among public ing questions about how different policy regimes shape Canadian universities: We question how—or if— these multinational companies standardize their pathways vealed that 69 of the 96 institutions, or across the world, which would have implications not only 72 percent of Canadian universities, had for how we perceive the flows of international students, but an affiliation with at least one pathway also for the extent of global corporatization of this mobility, beyond what is typically understood as a matter of recruit- college.

However, we DOI: Improving Access and within the walls of the public university, with many interna- tional and local examples to justify moving in this direction. Equity This effect is already visible in the similarities in form be- Hans de Wit and Elspeth Jones tween private pathway colleges and those owned by partner institutions.

This is unsurprising, considering that pathway Hans de Wit is director of the Center for International Higher Edu- programs represent significant income generation for insti- cation, Boston College, US.

Elspeth Jones is tutions, both by expanding their full fee paying internation- emerita professor, internationalisation of higher education, Leeds Beck- al student population, and by adding an additional year of ett University, UK. At a systems level, these pathways potentially usurp international student tuition dollars from This article is an updated version of a contribution by the au- community colleges, which also actively seek to recruit stu- thors to University World News, 8 December , Issue In these ways, pathway colleges are al- ready changing the higher education landscape.

Elitism, commer- can accrue from even short-term mobility work placement, study, or volunteering abroad , including transferable em- ployability skills, e. Short-term mobility can and vice versa.

An inclusive approach must take into ac- also develop intercultural competence skills such as will- count the varied sociopolitical, economic, and demographic ingness to take risks, patience, sensitivity, flexibility, open- contexts in different parts of the world, and must address mindedness, humility, respect, and creativity. Yet, even Two Main Paradoxes reaching these targets means that the majority of students, In higher education, we are faced with two main paradoxes.

In First, while we may be striving to increase internationaliza- emerging and developing countries, that percentage is clos- tion and global engagement, in many countries isolationist er to 99 percent. Mobility may be important and necessary, and nationalist trends result in a disconnect between local but it is insufficient to deliver inclusive internationalization.

Short-term mobility can also develop Although still in its early stages throughout the emerg- intercultural competence skills such as ing and developing world, massification has increased ac- cess to higher education. Access vs equity is an issue in willingness to take risks, patience, sen- general, but represents an even greater challenge for in- sitivity, flexibility, open-mindedness, hu- ternational education. We know the many benefits of in- mility, respect, and creativity.

Yet, in some emerging and developing economies, degree mobility is only for 1—2 percent of students and may have negative connotations, being seen as draining talent from the home Integrating Mobility into the Curriculum country perspective.

Inviting students to of credit-mobile students is even lower than those seeking reflect on their study abroad helps consolidate their own degrees. In other words, although mobility gets most atten- learning outcomes and contributes diversity of perspective tion in terms of internationalization policy and practice, for others.

The same applies to actively engaging students only a very small number of students take part. Universities from diverse geographical, national, linguistic, and cultural UK recently found students from higher managerial and backgrounds in the classroom. This is an approach various professional backgrounds almost five times more likely to commentators suggest we have still to fully utilize. It will be mobile than students from long-term unemployment not, in itself, internationalize the curriculum: Furthermore, mobile students earn higher mental review of program content, pedagogy, assessment, university grades and higher salaries than their nonmobile and learning outcomes is needed to achieve that.

However, counterparts, meaning greater advantage to those already it supports the incorporation of alternative perspectives into privileged. There is in addition a lack of representation in learning, teaching, and assessment processes. Toward a More Inclusive Approach Increasing Short-Term Mobility We believe internationalization policies fail to address all Increasing access to mobility is not easy, with funding a ma- of those for whom they are intended and that there should jor constraint.

One attempt to increase numbers is through be a renewed focus on students and staff who do not travel. As remark- the kind of elitism we try to fight. It excludes the large majority of students, and con- thing.

While any increase in student access to higher educa- firms the nationalist-populist argument that it is, in fact, tion is a cause for celebration, massification has given rise intellectual elitism.

Inclusive and comprehensive internationalization re- To begin with, it needs to be recognized that growth in quires us to reframe our thinking, regardless of the context GER in higher education often reflects an increasing level we live in. Internationalization for all should be the starting of economic prosperity and social and political confidence point for institutional strategies, reflecting an awareness within various countries.

As they become integrated into that all students must be engaged in this agenda for their the global economy, they inevitably consider the expansion future lives as citizens and as professionals. Not quires us to: We need to ask if the respective massifying systems of higher education have been able to cope with the pace of This is a revised version of a paper published in Higher Education change.

To what extent has the drive toward massification in Southeast Asia and Beyond HESB , a publication of the Head been stimulated by demand rather than by proper consid- Foundation in Singapore. S ince the beginning of this century, systems of higher education around the world have expanded rapidly.

Higher education is experiencing an unprecedented resource allocation, and capacity building. Many gradu- many of whom come from families that lack traditions of ates, moreover, do not possess the knowledge and skills that higher learning? The students are often private providers with varying degrees of commitment, ex- unable to secure a job in their area of study, therefore creat- pertise, and resources to provide quality higher education.

Nor will these graduates be able to have been, at best, uneven. It is important to ask, moreover, make the kind of contribution to national economic devel- if government bureaucracies themselves have the expertise opment that governments hope from the massification of to develop and implement the mechanisms necessary to co- their systems of higher education.

What this shows is that ordinate the work of private HEIs. Much depends The use of technology has often been considered as a on its purposes and outcomes, the ways it is organized and viable option for meeting the growing demand for higher coordinated, and the contribution it is able to make to the education at a reasonable cost.

Experience around the world development of the knowledge and skills needed in the has shown, however, that online learning can often be global economy. It is a folly to assume that pedagogic expertise in and prosperity. What is required, additionally, are more this area can be developed cheaply and quickly without sac- comprehensive programs of higher education reform. This rificing quality. The question of the forms in which massifica- shifts in the ways in which they are expected to operate, or tion is achieved should therefore lie at the heart of debates in the types of students they recruit.

Many are grossly un- over the expansion of systems of higher education. At the same time, little is done to forge with respect to social and cultural development. These im- systems designed to develop academic staff professionally. In this way, the task of capacity building should be regarded as Universal Access to Qual- central in any attempts at massification. For example, programs in busi- Office for International Linkages of the University of the Philippines. Sylvie Lomer is lec- tive and affordable to many new students, have in recent turer in education at the University of Manchester, UK.

Millora uea. The Act is meant to help those dropping out because T here is increasing attention worldwide on the debate regarding who pays university tuition fees. In contrast to other governments, the Philippine authorities have re- of a financial shortfall. This support would not primarily redistribute resources, but rather assist those who face dif- ficulties in the last phase of their studies.

The Act is also cently introduced a subsidy to cover tuition fees for Philip- intended to enhance quality. However, in the final education institutions. The Act also increases income-con- version of the Act, there is no longer a cap; SUCs will be tingent loans available to the poorest. There is a concern that the policy will lead to an exodus Stakeholders express three key criticisms. First, there of students from private to public providers. As a result of are already a number of programs in place to improve eq- a constitutional commitment to maintaining both public uitable access.

SUCs are already subsidized by the govern- and private institutions, the Act allows for a subsidy toward ment and tuition is significantly cheaper than in the private fees at private institutions at a rate equivalent to their near- sector. Second, the Act disproportionately benefits the middle-to-upper classes, because the bulk of SUC students come from mod- The Act aims principally to address erate to well-off backgrounds.

Only 12 percent of SUC stu- dropout rates: Students can also benefit from support for books, their lack of control over tuition fee income.

These other supplies, transportation, accommodation, and other related fees are not automatically covered by the subsidy and could expenses.

The Act counters a longstanding trend of increas- penalize the poorest students further tuition fees comprise ing fees in higher education. Philippine Senator Benjamin only between 20 to 30 percent of the total cost of a degree.

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Approximately 54 percent of students Filipinos, who value higher education qualifications. This comes in , although spending per capita remains relatively in conjunction with the move to extend compulsory educa- low. The national tional year in secondary education. This has affected the economy is projected to expand at over 6 percent in the me- finances of higher education institutions, placing particu- dium term and the subsidy appears affordable.

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However, lar pressure on private institutions. The exodus of students while the measure is politically popular, it has been fiercely could also be mirrored by a migration of faculty, as salaries debated. Support and Opposition The Act aims principally to address dropout rates: It sends a power- creased even further, doubling approximately every 12 ful signal, particularly to poor and struggling students, that years.

On the one hand, this growth can be seen as positive higher education is accessible to all. In principle, the Act allows all Fili- publications, which they find difficult to process, while sci- pinos to access quality tertiary education and commits to entists find it ever more difficult to keep on top of them.

The Philippines has a young and growing tem, and the more difficult it is for scientists to tell what is population: Thus, scientists are increas- from Given the powerful hold of the outputs. The absence of a cap on student numbers in the final ver- And, unsurprisingly, open-access jour- sion of the law confirms an intention to expand the sector, nals often charge significant publication incentivizing SUC leaders to raise revenue by increasing student numbers.

This could exacerbate the projected flight fees.

Thanks to the expanding economy, the Act is affordable in the short-to-medium term. But concerns about a rapid ex- Scarcity of Publication Space in Top Journals pansion of student numbers call its long-term sustainability In my research funded by the British Academy, I investi- into question. For the country to compete with its regional rivals as a among journals? Unsurprisingly, I found that publishing knowledge economy, expanding access to higher education in the top-tier journals—Cell, Nature, or Science—appears would likely provide a competitive advantage.

With its large to be the Holy Grail of science as it guarantees academic service sector and rapid industrialization, the Philippines positions, grants, and membership on editorial boards. Addition- DOI: In the past, before the era of online jour- Science Publishing nals, print page limits were limited so the scarcity of publi- cation slots was justified; nowadays, however, it is harder to Sabine Siebert justify high rejection rates other than by the rationale that Sabina Siebert is professor of management, Adam Smith Business extremely low acceptance rates signal high status to suc- School, University of Glasgow, UK.

Between the late s and , the number of publications doubled approxi- So what happens to the papers rejected from these three top journals? Some journals pass the rejected papers, with ture of this market is fighting for submissions. Just as the glasses in the tower are organized in tiers, rejected from the top journals.

In between are various tiers of journals in or Science Signalling. The stated goal of this transfer mecha- decreasing order according to their impact factor. When re- nism is to help authors find a place to publish their paper jected from the top tier journals, papers, like champagne, as quickly and smoothly as possible. Journal editors sometimes er than they would be otherwise. For the journal families, express a cynical view that everything will get published the practice of transfers also makes good business sense, somewhere, eventually.

So if lower-tier journals soak up because it allows publishers to capture a greater share of rejected papers, it is worth considering who owns these the market. If you can cascade it, … these arrangements, and who loses out? Before accepting surprisingly, open-access journals often charge significant the practice uncritically, I argue that editors of social sci- publication fees. The con- cern expressed by some editors of the middle-tier, small, specialist journals was that the papers that used to be sub- mitted to their journals are now published in the journals owned by the three big families Cell, Nature, and Science.

The name alone Malcolm Tight stands for prestige and quality and successes in research. And, indeed, this is what I found: Therefore, it is important—whether you are a ture, knowing that they will probably get it into Nature higher education researcher or someone with an interest in Communications. However, the editors of smaller special- that research—to know something about them.

How many ist journals worry about this trend, as they feel that they are they? Ugly Panda. Dwayne Frost. Lucius Calrissian. Azam Khan. Charlotte Snyman. Susanka Sanjeewa.

Maya Myers. Sophie Zondervan. Jeffrey Wienckowski. Peer Coach Academy Colorado. Viktor Dick. Popular in Arts. Saxofonista El Salvador. Francesca Mermati. Jade French. Mehmet C. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.