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It was on 19 November that a big flag, at the 13th gate of Apostolos Nikolaidis Stadium announced the arrival of a new group on the scene.
Gate 13 would be the first organized group that over the years became a part of the club by affecting club decisions and by following the club on all possible occasions. On 26 October , at the Alkazar stadium of Larissa Charalambos Blionas was killed by a flare pistol thrown by the Paok fans. In January , before the derby of Aek F.
A football player Tasos Katsambis was injured during the clashes. The match was halted and Aris was punished with a 4-point deduction which led to their relegation to the Second Division. In April , all sports stadiums were closed down in Greece for two weeks following the death of a fan in a pre-arranged fight between hooligans in Athens on 29 March.
The fight involved fans of rival Super League Greece clubs Panathinaikos , which is based in Athens, and Olympiacos , which is based in nearby Piraeus. The Greek government immediately suspended all team sports in Greece and severed the ties between teams and their supporters' organizations. Two players and a coach were sent to the hospital. On 18 April, rival fans clashed with each other and riot police in Ioannina during and after a Greek Cup semi-final match between local rivals PAS Giannena and Larissa.
There was trouble during the game in which Larissa won 2—0. Fans set fire to rubbish bins and smashed shop windows, while police tried to disperse them by firing tear gas. Among the injured were a group of Aris Thessaloniki players and their coach, a veteran PAOK player and another official. On 7 October , a group of Greek supporters firebombed the away section of a Euro qualifying match against Croatia in Athens.
On 18 March , during the match for the Super League Greek Championship in Athens Olympic Stadium between Panathinaikos and Olympiakos, home team Panathinaikos's fans who were inside the stadium attacked police forces with Molotov bombs, causing extended damages to the stadium, while police forces were unable to keep peace. Before the match clashes broke up between AEK and Aigaleo fans. Indeed, the clashes resulted in the arrest of a security guard of the stadium who was accused of participating in the clashes among Aigaleo hooligans and also accused of committing attempted murder against an AEK fan.
On 75' minute of the game, a clash between the supporters of the two clubs forced the referee to stop the match. During the clash, a year-old supporter of Ethnikos Piraeus suffered a severe head injury and died two weeks later. In February , A. Roma fans fought with police and Liverpool F. An official of amateur club Sammartinese died when he was caught up in a fight between players and fans in Luzzi , among numerous incidents of disorder in Florence , Bergamo and elsewhere. In a Euro qualifying match in Podgorica on 27 March , a few seconds in, a hooligan threw a flare at Russia goalkeeper Igor Akinfeev injuring him.
The match was then temporarily suspended. Later fighting between the teams and more hooliganism rendered the game abandoned. It was the first time the Netherlands encountered such destructive hooliganism. The most violent rivalry is between Ajax and Feyenoord.
A particularly serious incident was the so-called " Battle of Beverwijk " on 23 March , in which several people were seriously injured and one killed. Arranged football hooligan fights in Poland are known as ustawki ; they became common in Poland since the late 90s.
One victim was seriously injured and later died in hospital. Football Hooliganism was never an issue in Ireland up until the early s and involved many pre match fights began to spawn in areas such as County Louth, Dublin and Derry. The behaviour of fans in these areas involved fights, racist chants and banners and many different pyrotechnic tools such as flares, smoke bombs and strobes. Often enough the away team and League of Ireland matches would be ganged up on by the home teams and attacked.
Russian hooligans often show an underlying resentment towards Russia's perceived political rivals. The most prominent groups of hooligans are associated with Belgrade and Serbia 's two main clubs, Red Star Belgrade and Partizan Belgrade. They are known as the Delije "Heroes" and Grobari "Gravediggers" , respectively. FK Rad is a less-successful Belgrade club, whose associated hooligans, known locally as " United Force ", have notoriously been involved in many violent incidents.
On 19 September a Serbian football hooligan was sentenced to ten years in jail for an attack against a police officer at a Red Star Belgrade — Hajduk Kula game. Partizan fans threw flares and stones and fought with supporters of Zrinjski Mostar and police. They attacked him and other fans with baseball bats and flares while wearing surgical masks. The hooligans received up to 35 years in prison. Football hooliganism in Spain arises from three main sources.
The first is racism, as some black players have been victims of ethnic slurs. The second source is the strong rivalry between Real Madrid and Barcelona. The crowd threw bottles, mobile phones and other things including a pig's head. In Spain, organized hooligan groups are popularly called grupos ultra. Since then, authorities have made attempts to bring hooliganism more under control. Many black foreign players have been racially abused, such as at a friendly match between Spain and England, in which black England players such as Shaun Wright-Phillips and Ashley Cole endured monkey chants from Spain supporters.
Hooligan violence in Spain decreased since the late s due to an alcohol ban in sporting events as well as hooligan laws which attempt fines up to , euros and bans of two years without access to stadiums. The hardcore of Barcelona hooligans subgroups were involved in police operations against organized crime. In a Rayo Vallecano hooligan was arrested during riots in the November 14 general strike and accused of terrorism.
Two Juventus supporters were stabbed one of them was seriously injured but survived after being hospitalized and a Sevilla supporter was hospitalized with head wounds caused by a glass bottle. But several other football, bandy and ice hockey clubs have active hooligan followings. In Switzerland, hooligan incidents are rare due to the fact that the stadiums are small and teams are little.
Jakob Park to win the Swiss championship with a last-minute goal. There was similar fighting in the streets that night. According to the Turkish Daily News , hooligan groups are well organised, have their own "leaders", and often consist of organised street fighters.
These groups have a "racon" code of conduct , which states that the intention must be to injure rather than kill and that a stab must be made below the waist.
Repeat offenders could be fined up to YTL , Leeds complained because home fans jeered while a message of condolence was read for the victims. The Leeds chairman at the time, Peter Ridsdale , accused Galatasaray of "showing a lack of respect".
On 3 June , after the Belgium vs. Turkey match, several riots occurred in the city center of Ghent after a 1—1 draw. Bursaspor were playing to avoid relegation. Bursaspor won 1—0 the but were relegated to Category A after rivals won.
One object struck and knocked down an assistant referee. This was described as a warzone. It resulted in 40 deaths and some were injured. The violence started following provocation of the Kayserispor fans in the half time, whose team went to leading by a goal scored in the first half. Supporters of the two teams threw rocks to each other. Some of the hooligans were also armed with bats and knives. The fleeing crowd caused a stampede in front of the stand exits.
The events in the stadium were followed by vandalism in Kayseri and many-days lasting riots in Sivas. Hooliganism is also an issue in other sports like Basketball and Volleyball in Turkey. On 13 May , a Fenerbahce fan was stabbed to death after the Istanbul derby. From the s, many organised hooligan firms sprang up, with most Football League clubs having at least one known organised hooligan element.
Hooliganism was often as its worst when local rivals played each other. Racism became a major factor in hooliganism around the same time, as black players became a regular feature in English league teams from the s.
Black players were frequently targeted with monkey chants, and had bananas thrown at them. Members of far-right groups including the National Front also sprayed racist slogans and distributed racist literature at matches.
Sectarian violence has long been a regular factor of crowd violence, as well as offensive chanting, at matches in Scotland between Celtic and Rangers. As a result of the Heysel Stadium disaster at Brussels , Belgium , in , where Liverpool FC fans rioting led to the death of 39 Juventus fans, English clubs were banned from all European competitions until , with Liverpool the English team present banned for an additional year.
While football hooliganism has been a growing concern in some other European countries in recent years, British football fans now tend to have a better reputation abroad. Although reports of British football hooliganism still surface, the instances now tend to occur at pre-arranged locations including pubs rather than at the matches themselves. Football hooliganism movement in Ukraine started in the s.
The first big fight more than people involving football hooligans was registered in September between Dynamo Kyiv and Spartak Moscow fans in the center of Kiev. The origin of the football hooligan movement in Ukraine started in the mids. On September 5, an important game between Ukraine and Russia 's national football teams was played.
Ukrainian hooligans began to unite in "National crews" to resist Russian fans. However, the mass union did not take place due to police intervention and were mainly composed of Ukrainian fans from Kiev and Dnipropetrovsk. In March , several crews united and attacked 80 Belarusian fans after match between Ukraine and Belarus national football teams. At that exact time hooligans and ultras were separated, due to changes of views on supporting movement.
One part decided to dedicate all time at the tribune to create a choreo in Italian style, and the others decided to remain faithful to English style with fighting and the same wear style. First, they stoned small shop and after that throw stoned in synagogue and beat up the head of synagogue and other believers. Since clashes between hooligans occurred mostly outside the city because of the excessive attention of police. During the Euro several leaders of football hooligans came under government pressure.
Because of the ban internal conflicts and successes in the international stage Ukrainian hooligans pay attention to foreign fans. Few days before to Kiev came about 7, fans from Istanbul. Two days before match on the streets in different parts of Ukrainian capital witnessed the outbreak of numerous conflicts. Typically the biggest confrontation involving Ukrainian hooligans occurring in domestic competitions. The most famous confrontation: There are local derbys as: Donetsk derby or Kyiv derby.
On 2 November in Montevideo Uruguay , occurred another murder where an Argentina fan was involved. Seeing this, Boca Juniors fans wanted to tear down the fence and invade the pitch, prompting the police to fire shots to disperse them. But a police officer named Luis Estrella shot into the stands, killing two spectators: But this violence was not only among fans, footballers or the police, but also against the referees.
The match was tied on two goals when Cossio annulled a goal of the premises, and the third goal of San Lorenzo de Almagro in the next play worsened the situation.
With the time, every big and small football club in Argentina started to have its own corresponding barra brava, and all are violent or prepared for violence. In Argentina there are the most dangerous organized supporter groups in the world,  and the most powerful of them are the barras bravas of Independiente La barra del Rojo , Boca Juniors and Newell's Old Boys. But this phenomenon suffered a major transformation in the late s. Because of this murder in October , the society notes the existence of this organized groups the barras bravas.
The so-called "industrialization of football" was the kickoff for this organization, because needed to control all aspects involved in the game. Before the emergence of these groups, when a team played as a visitor, was pressured by rival fans. This prompted the organization of the barras bravas in response to that pressure:. In Argentine football, it was well established that if you played as the visiting team, you were inexorably in a tight spot. Although they were not barras bravas as we know them today, local fans would pressure you, and the police, when not looking the other way, would pressure you as well.
That had to be offset by a doctrine that in the next decade became common currency: In this way, each club began having his barra brava, which was funded by the leaders of the institution.
These groups were given their tickets and paid trips to the stadium, adding later other forms of financing. But the access to these "benefits" by the barra brava depended of the hierarchy inside her.
For the barra brava to be prestigious, it had to be violent, so they began to increase the number of dead.
After the death of Linker, in Argentine football began a phase marked by "habituation" to the violence of the barras bravas, and an increase in the number of deaths. However, it also clarifies that the origin of such deaths is not always confrontation in the stadium, and range from the premeditated clash between barras bravas outside the sporting venues, police repression against disorder, infighting in a barra brava or "accidents", its analysis tends to show some kind of negligence or violation of safety standards.
From the s and onwards, the nuclei of the biggest barras bravas began to attend the matches of the Argentina national football team in the FIFA World Cups. That caused fights against supporters of other countries sometimes were hooligans or ultras and between the Argentine barras bravas themselves. Also, in the s and the s were recorded the highest levels of violence in the history of the Argentine football, and there was a new phenomenon: It was produced by the emergence of sub-groups with their own names inside the barras bravas.
Sometimes these sub-groups fought among themselves to have the power within the barra brava to which they belonged. An example of the violence of this years was the Roberto Basile's death. Before the start of a match between Boca Juniors and Racing in in the Bombonera stadium, this Racing supporter died after being pierced in the neck by a flare thrown from the Boca Juniors stand.
In a member of La Guardia Imperial barra brava of Racing de Avellaneda was murdered by an Independiente supporter. In , other supporter of Racing was killed, and the barra brava of Independiente was the main suspect.
Between 70 and 80 people were arrested as a result. The match started late when Independiente fans threw a smoke bomb at Racing Club goalkeeper , Gustavo Campagnuolo. That same weekend, 30 people were arrested and 10 police officers injured when fighting broke out at a match between Estudiantes de La Plata and Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata in La Plata.
A investigation into football hooliganism in Argentina stated that football violence had become a national crisis, with about 40 people murdered at football matches in the preceding ten years. In the season, there had been five deaths and dozens of knife and shotgun casualties. At one point the season was suspended and there was widespread social disorder in the country.
The first death in was at a match between fierce rivals Boca Juniors and River Plate. The match was abandoned and one Boca Juniors fan was shot dead. Boca Juniors, one of the largest clubs in Argentina, may have the largest barra brava element in the country it is similar to the barras bravas of Independiente and River Plate , with their self-styled leader, Rafael Di Zeo, claiming in that they had over members however there are doubts about the reliability of this information.
Up to this day, some members of Los Borrachos still face charges because of the deaths. During the FIFA World Cup in Germany, there was a confrontation  between 6 members of the barra brava of Independiente and 16 members of the barras bravas of Boca Juniors and Defensa y Justicia both were together in the Czech Republic the country where the three barras bravas were housed.
As a result of the fight, a supporter of Boca Juniors had to be hospitalized. After this, were serious riots near the stadium not only caused by the barras bravas, but also by ordinary people , and as a result of it, a fan of Tigre died. On 19 March in a bar of Rosario, the ex leader of the Newell's Old Boys barra brava Roberto "Pimpi" Camino was shot and later died in a hospital of that city.
Some members of the now main sub-group are the suspects of the murder, and the bar's owners are suspected of helping them. During the brawl, one member of the Boca Juniors barra brava lost consciousness after being brutally beating by the Independiente fanatics. On 14 May , in a game between River Plate and Boca Juniors at La Bombonera , hooligans sprayed a substance which irritated River Plate players' eyes, and the game was suspended.
Fans in Brazil join in organized groups known as torcidas organizadas "organized supporters" often considered criminal organizations that differ in many aspects from European hooligans. They act as the main supporters of each club and often sell products and even tickets.
They have up to 60, members and are often involved in criminal activities other than fights such as drug dealing and threats to players. The "torcidas organizadas" are usually bigger and more committed to the spectacle in the stadiums than the English hooligan fans  but they often schedule fights against rival groups where many are injured and killed.
Violence had been expected, and just before kick-off, fans started fighting. Police tried to intervene but were pelted by stones.
Over 30 people were injured. The Football War Spanish: It was caused by political conflicts between Hondurans and Salvadorans, namely issues concerning immigration from El Salvador to Honduras. These existing tensions between the two countries coincided with the inflamed rioting during the second North American qualifying round of the FIFA World Cup.
There was fighting between fans at the first game in the Honduran capital of Tegucigalpa on 8 June , which Honduras won 1—0. The second game, on 15 June in the Salvadoran capital of San Salvador , which was won 3—0 by El Salvador, was followed by even greater violence. El Salvador won 3—2 after extra time. The war began on 14 July , when the El Salvadoran military launched an attack against Honduras. The Organization of American States negotiated a cease-fire on the night of 18 July hence " Hour War" , which took full effect on 20 July.
El Salvadoran troops were withdrawn in early August. El Salvador dissolved all ties with Honduras, stating that "the government of Honduras has not taken any effective measures to punish these crimes which constitute genocide, nor has it given assurances of indemnification or reparations for the damages caused to Salvadorans". Fans then clashed with the police, and many fans were injured or arrested.
In March dozens of Chivas supporters clashed with police during their derby with Atlas. Several police were hospitalized. As a result, Chivas banned all of their supporters for the Clasico against Club America. While soccer is traditionally viewed in the United States as a family-friendly event, played by children and supported by parents, some violence does still occur.
For junior league soccer, parents can be overzealous and be begrudged over unrelated matters and fights between parents have been documented and reported with police being called and intervening. Police estimated more than people were involved. One Toronto fan was tasered by Columbus police. Clashes also took place in the parking area around the stadium after the game, involving already ejected-for-life North Jersey Firm NJF members, and the New Jersey State Police were called to quell the situation.
A rare moment of violence broke out in Seattle in March after a pre-season Portland Timbers win in Seattle, when three Sounders fans attacked a Timbers fan, choking and dragging him with his team scarf.
While he was sitting in his car, he had taunted his scarf at a group of San Jose Supporters, one of which ran toward him and attacked him through his car window, breaking his car windshield and assaulting him. However, hooliganism overall is rare in the United States in part because of stricter legal penalties for vandalism and physical violence, club markets having their own territory of fans and are often spread out, venues banning weapons, stricter security during games, and there's a stronger taboo of mixing politics, class, race, and religion into the American sporting culture.
Although isolated drunken fights might occur, it never escalates to that of Europe and Latin America. Football hooliganism in Bangladesh does not appear to be a major problem. When the referee disallowed a penalty, Mohammedan fans invaded the pitch, throwing stones at the police, who had to fire tear gas at the fans to try and restore order.
Outside the stadium dozens of cars and buses were damaged and set on fire. Football hooliganism in China is often linked to accusations of corrupt refereeing, with Chinese football being plagued by allegations of match fixing in the early s.
Eight people were arrested but later released. Two years earlier, following crowd trouble at a match also in Xi'an, the government demanded more action to stamp out football hooliganism. In June , riots in Fuzhou , Fujian had to be put down by heavily armed paramilitary police.
The disorder started when fans were unable to watch the World Cup match between China and Brazil at an outside broadcast. Japanese flags were burned and a Japanese Embassy official's car vandalised.
Japanese fans had to be protected by the police, and bussed to safety. According to SOS data, 21 deaths of the 70, have occurred at the hands of a mob. Rioting continued in the stadium when Torcida fans threw chairs into the pitch and made Nazi salutes.
A riot occurred in in Osijek during the Osijek-Dinamo match. Several clashes between the Bad Blue Boys and Kohorta occurred before the match in which one Osijek fan received several stab wounds after which Osijek fans attacked the police and Dinamo fans with signal flares and stones.
Approximately Bad Blue Boys were detained and eight police officers were injured. A large riot occurred in on 1 May at the Maksimir stadium when the Bad Blue Boys clashed with the police resulting in many arrests and one critically injured police officer. After the match violent clashes continued in which one Dinamo fan was shot by police officers.
Several incidents occurred when Bad Blue Boys and Torcida made racist chants towards opposing club's football players of African descent and hurled bananas in the pitch. In , a Cameroon player was attacked in Koprivnica resulting in severe injuries. In December , 10—15 Tornado Zadar hooligans attacked a Partizan traveling coach with stones and bricks resulting in one injured person. In December 30—40 Bad Blue Boys attacked a PAOK traveling coach with stones, bricks and flares setting the traveling coach on fire and inflicting injuries on several passengers.
In November , during a Euro qualifying game in Milan, Italy , hooligans from Croatia threw flares and fireworks onto the field and the game had to be briefly suspended. Anorthosis Famagusta FC fans have been in involved in many incidents on most occasions involving their ultras group "Mahites". The most violent cases of hooliganism in Cyprus usually involve the two teams. Other incidents between clubs of different cities that are of the same political orientation are associated with intercity rivalries, particularly when a club from Limassol faces a club from Nicosia.
Football hooliganism in France is often rooted in social conflict , including racial tension. Violent fights and post-game riots including car burning, and shop windows smashing have been a regular fixture of PSG-OM games. In , the bitter rivalry turned particularly violent. The six were alleged to have deliberately entered a part of the Parc des Princes stadium where French fans of Turkish origin were standing, in order to attack them. The six were banned from all football stadiums for the duration of their trial.
A plainclothes police officer who tried to protect the Hapoel fan was attacked, and in the chaos, one fan was shot dead and another seriously injured. The director-general of the French police, Michel Gaudin, insisted that measures against football hooliganism had reduced racist incidents to six that season from nineteen in the previous season. Gaudin also stated that known hooligans could be banned from matches.
The KOB themselves held a silent memorial march attended by and accused the police office of murdering the fan. They cited bias in the French press who had only given a "one-sided" account of the incident. French Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin called for new, tougher measures to deal with football hooligans. Prosecutors opened an inquiry into the incident, to determine whether the officer involved should face criminal charges. Before a home match against Sochaux on 4 January , two Arab youths were punched and kicked by white fans outside the entrance to the KOB.
During the match racist insults were aimed at black players and a PSG player of Indian origin, Vikash Dhorasoo was told to "go sell peanuts in the metro". The threat of dissolution of fan groups has also tempered the outward rivalry and violence of a number of fans. Known violent fans under ban sentences are to report to the nearest Police station on nights of game, to prove they are not anywhere in proximity to the stadium.
On 11 June , during a Euro match in Marseille between Russia and England, violent conflict broke out between the fans and left 35 injured. Both threw numerous items at each other and engaged in physical combat. Even a person who is recording the incident can be seen stomping another person's head. The match was then postponed. In March , German football fans fought with police and rival fans at a friendly match between Germany and Slovenia in Celje , Slovenia , damaging cars and shops, and shouting racist slogans.
This is, however, a bad starting-point for attracting foreign tourists as Amsterdam does. In particular, the new Rembrandt Tower of Amsterdam, a landmark that can be discerned from a great distance, appears to be a strong instrument to attract new head offices Philips!
The irony in this story is precisely hidden in the name, for Rembrandt - totally different from Erasmus - lived in Amsterdam the greater part of his life. More than three centuries after his death, Rembrandt, being one of the city's main tourists attractions, still does a lot for his home town by contributing to its imagineering as an international cultural city.
The memory of Erasmus, on the other hand, does not contribute at all to the cultural image of Rotterdam. The cultural policy of Rotterdam 24"There is much cultural suffering in Rotterdam", the prestigious national - but Rotterdam-based - newspaper De Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant recently wrote ironically. Of course, Rotterdam suffers most from its eternal second-rate position and tries to find a cultural image that both abolishes the uncultured image of 'the industrious city' and provides a distinct face as a city of culture.
For instance, Rotterdam wants to become the seat of the National Centre of Photo- and filmproduction, but Amsterdam also claims this new national centre with the argument that most professional photographers and filmmakers live and work in this city.
Rotterdam is eclipsed by Amsterdam in every cultural sector. If we restrict the concept of culture to 'high culture' for the moment, we can point to its famous Boymans-Van Beuningen Museum already years old and many other museums, its philharmonic orchestra, theatres, a ballet company, and many other things.
Since , this domestic policy has been extended, if not overshadowed, by adopting a market-oriented policy of urban culture as a means of promotion. As already has been said, Rotterdam prefers to invest in modern architecture as demonstration of its dynamism and modernity.
And it must be said, at present the city has much to offer, besides the Erasmus Bridge, to those interested in modern architecture. Already in the central government decided to build the new National Institute of Architecture in Rotterdam, much to the disappointment of Amsterdam. The original plans for a museum park date back to the seventies, when, in accordance with the then cultural policy, it was meant to be an eductional facility for the local population.
By now, the Museum Park has become a prestigious element in the new market-oriented cultural policy of Rotterdam Van Aalst, Becoming European City of Culture 27After the emphasis on the Rotterdam cultural policy has been shifted from mainly local aims to exterior goals. The main aim of the present Rotterdam cultural policy is to make money from culture.
The cultural infrastructure of the city nowadays is predominantly aimed at attracting tourists from the rest of the country and from abroad.
These visitors should be lured to stay in Rotterdam for some time - especially for some nights - and spend their money in the city.
The possibility of being elected as 'European City of Culture' has been discovered as a proper means to revalue the city's cultural status and, in consequence, its attractiveness to foreign visitors. Athens became the first 'European City of Culture', Amsterdam followed two years later.
Since that time, Rotterdam has waited for its opportunity. After twelve years a second round was started and Rotterdam, as the second city of the Netherlands, considered itself to be a serious candidate. A city that has been designated just obtains the status from 'Brussels' and then has to earn the money in the market.
The designated cultural capital has to provide by itself almost all the money that is necessary to organize the event. The experience is that in the last five or six years more and more money has been invested in the event, for the organizing of temporary manifestations and, in particular, for the restoration of monuments and the building of new projects museums of modern art. After some years the interest of cities to become designated 'European City of Culture' has risen to the level of severe competition.
Rotterdam thought, however, to have good opportunities in the next year and started a intensive lobbying campaign. The city had some serious competitors and, moreover, the ministers of cultural affairs could not agree unanimously. Some countries insisted on having again a larger number of cultural capitals by designating all candidates, like in So, there was a severe competition between several candidates, like cities that want to host the Olympic Games.
Rotterdam immediately started the preparations for the event. Compared to the previous cultural capitals Stockholm, Thessaloniki, Copenhagen the budget of Rotterdam is, however, rather moderate about 25 million euros. Even Porto has a larger budget about 35 million euros.
The city tries to evade the mistakes of previous cultural capitals, where the superabundance of events Stockholm for instance organized about manifestations missed the public. The first signs, indeed, indicate that Rotterdam emphasizes the involvement of the many population groups of this multicultural city.
So, after all, Rotterdam seems to be inclined to return to the pre aims of its cultural policy. What does a city stand to gain from being having been the cultural capital of Europe for one year? For, as we know, this is just an honour, granted by 'Brussels' without any substantial financial support. The designated city has to procure the money for organizing the event from its own pocket, or from central government and trade and industry.
Rotterdam, for instance, expects that these sources each will provide a third of its budget. But, what will eventually be the revenues? Are costs and profits in the balance?
And, do we first of all care for financial returns, or do we have to expect immaterial benefits cultural climate, image? Evidence of the lasting effects from previous European Cities of Culture is scarce. Moreover, most of these cultural capitals that were deignated in the first years of the event were already main destinations of cultural tourism, such as Florence, Madrid, Berlin, and Paris. The effects of having been the official cultural capital of Europe is not easily to be isolated in these cities.
Many projects turned out to be a financial disaster. The big public was not interested in the event. Stockholm had the same disappointing experience. Moreover, the attendace of the international cultural tourists stayed behind the expectations. After a few years nobody will remember the names of previous cultural capitals.
What counts is the presence of restored monuments and new museums and theatres that without the impetus of the event of 'European City of Culture' would not have been there to please the local population and to attract tourists from abroad. Top of page Bibliography Aalst, I.