Pharmaceutical Coating Technology (Pharmaceutical Science Series): Medicine & Health Science Books @ musicmarkup.info Pharmaceutical Coating Technology edited by. Graham Cole. Downloaded by [ Saudi Digital Library] at 30 January This book describes the types of techniques now available to the polymer chemist and technician, Pharmaceutical Coating Technology – Download eBook.
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Pharmaceutical Coating Technology - CRC Press Book. For Librarians Available on Taylor & Francis eBooks >>. Select Format: Hardback, eBook -. This book is the definitive work on the theory and practice of pharmaceutical tablet and pellet coating. It describes both the practical and theoretical aspects of . This book is a complete, authoritative resource on the coating of tablets, capsules , and other solid dosage Fourteen authors cover the industry's technologies.
BASF offers all major coating types plus as well as plasticizers for your successful coating formulation. For solid oral dosage forms, film coating has become an integral part of the formulation. Today almost every tablet has at least a colored instant release coat providing both differentiation and basic physical protection from environmental influences. But due to the possiblities highly functional coating polymers provide, film coating often delivers much more. It can protect moisture sensitive active ingredients from humidity or sensitive patients from the unpleasant taste of certain drugs. And when it comes to enteric and sustained release coatings, the applied film takes over a key role in the design of the drug release profile. Here it is the coat that controls where and how fast the active ingredient is released within the body, and reliable functionality is absolutely critical.
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During the atomisation process individual droplets evolve from a liquid stream with a concurrent increase in surface area to mass ratio of the liquid [ 3 ].
In principle, for atomisation to occur it is necessary to generate a high relative velocity between the liquid stream and the surrounding air or gas [ 4 , 5 ]. The ratio of the flow rates of the atomising air and the liquid stream, known as the atomisation to liquid flow ratio ALM , is considered an important parameter in determining droplet size [ 6 , 7 ].
Various reports highlight the dependency of droplet size on both atomisation pressure and liquid flow rate pump rate [ 8 , 9 ] and both have been recognised as critical process parameters CPPs for coating processes [ 10 ]. Viscosity is also known to significantly influence droplet size during atomisation [ 11 , 12 ], with higher viscosity liquids forming larger droplets during atomisation.
Twin-fluid atomisation is a complex and multivariable process that, despite significant efforts, is still not well understood and remains difficult to predict [ 11 ]. The general agreed mechanism involves an initial sheet formation of the liquid stream after exiting the nozzle, followed by a breakup into stretched liquid ligaments and then droplet formation [ 1 , 13 — 15 ]. A more recent and complex two-stage instability mechanism comprises the formation of an initial shear instability forming waves on the liquid surface and then a Raleigh-Taylor instability at the wave crests, forming ligaments that stretch and further break up into droplets [ 11 , 16 — 18 ].
Unfortunately for tablet film coating, many studies have not been undertaken using non-Newtonian viscous fluids [ 19 ]. Production of a high quality tablet film coat depends upon multiple factors such as the formulation [ 20 ], equipment [ 21 ] and process parameters [ 22 , 23 ]. The importance of droplet size on coating efficiency and quality has been reported, [ 14 , 24 , 25 ] with small droplets responsible for a more homogenous or even distribution of coating solution on the tablet surface [ 26 , 27 ].
More rapid water evaporation due to the greater volume to surface area ratio of small droplets [ 28 — 30 ] leads to greater coating efficiency [ 31 ].
Over-wetting, which can result in defects such as poor adhesion of coating polymer to the tablet surface, peeling, twinning, picking and sticking and tablet erosion [ 2 , 32 ], is thus less prevalent with smaller droplets.
Tablet defects, particularly poor adhesion can harm film functionality and negatively impact on the mechanical properties provided by a film coat. To date no studies have investigated the direct impact of droplet size on tablet film coat using micro scale imaging. Revealing the micro scale morphology of the coat in this way could provide information on coat quality as well as the interaction of the coat with the tablet core.
The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the differences in tablet film coats produced from either small or large droplets using micro imaging techniques. To produce droplets of a known size a design of experiments DOE approach was implemented to evaluate the impact of three CPPs: atomisation pressure, pump rate and polymer concentration on droplet size during atomisation of a film coat solution from a twin-fluid external mixing nozzle.
The generated model was then exploited to reveal the process conditions required to achieve droplets of a desired size. Avis, Atul J.
Shukla, Rong-Kun Chang. Edition 1st Edition.
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