Major Problems in. American History. Volume II. Since DOCUMENTS AND ESSAYS 2. Louisiana Black Codes Reinstate Provisions of the Slave Era, . 8. 3. . John Lewis Gaddis • Two Cold War Empires: Friendly Persuasion vs. Read Major Problems in American History, Volume I PDF - by Elizabeth Cobbs Cengage Learning | Designed to encourage critical thinking ab. Major Problems in American History, Volume 2 two new historiographical trends: the emergence of the history of religion as an exceptionally.
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History, Volume II: Since , . devastated the South: entire cities lay in ruins; two-thirds of southern railroads MAJOR PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. Major problems in American history documents and essays Volume 2 Since . by Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman;. Print book. English. Fourth edition. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 Copyright Major Problems in American History Volume I To Documents and Essays.
And why do you think these different perspectives existed? Whose viewpoint do you agree with most? It is not too much to say that the student of history is similar to a detective who seeks out sources and clues that illuminate the lives and events of the past. In addition to primary sources, each chapter in this volume contains two essays that represent what we call a secondary source.
Secondary sources are the written work of historians who have conducted painstaking research in primary sources. Historians work with an array of primary sources that they uncover and use as evidence to construct an argument that addresses one of the major problems in American history. A secondary source is so named because it is one step removed from the primary source. As you will notice, the writers of the essays in each chapter do not necessarily reach similar conclusions.
On the contrary, they illustrate differing opinions about why events occurred and what they mean for us today. And they differ for a number of reasons. First, interpretations are influenced by the sources on which they depend. Occasionally, a historian might uncover a cache of primary sources heretofore unknown to other scholars, and these new sources might shed new light on a topic. Here again historians are like detectives.
Second and more important, however, historians carry their own perspectives to the research. As they read secondary sources, analyze primary texts, Copyright Cengage Learning. As they combine their analyses with their own perspectives, they create an argument to explain the past. If analyzing sources resembles working as a detective, writing history is similar to being a judge who attempts to construct the most consistent argument from the sources and information at hand.
And historians can be sure that those who oppose their viewpoints will analyze their use of sources and the logic of their argument.
Those who might disagree with them—and that might include you—will criticize them if they make errors of fact or logic. The essays were selected for this text in part because they reflect differing conclusions with which you may or may not agree. For example, what caused the Civil War?
For decades, historians have given us a number of answers. Some have said the war could have been prevented if politicians had been more careful to avoid sectional divisions or if the U. Others have observed that the divisions that developed between the North and South over time became so acute that they could not be compromised away.
A civil war in their view was well nigh inevitable. Some historians have celebrated this period as a flowering of American democracy.
The increased voting rights for men fostered raucous political parades that celebrated the American freedoms. An important question left unanswered in all of these chapters is what do you think is the correct interpretation? In fact, you might wish to create your own argument that uses primary sources found here and elsewhere and that accepts parts of one essay and parts of another. When you do this, you have become a historian, a person who attempts to analyze texts critically, someone who is actively engaged in the topic.
If that occurs, this volume is a success.
When we discuss the discipline of history with people, we typically get one of two responses. In contrast, those who loved history remember a teacher or professor who brought the subject alive by invoking the worlds of people in the past.
As we have tried to indicate in this short overview, history is not about memorizing boring facts but rather an active enterprise of thought and interpretation. Historians are not rote learners; studying history does not entail simply memorization. Instead, historians are detectives and judges, people who interpret and imagine what happened in history and why, individuals who study the past in order to understand the world in which they live in the present.
Facts are Copyright Cengage Learning. In sum, our intent with this text is to show how primary and secondary sources can be utilized to aid you in understanding and interpreting major problems in the American past.
It is also aimed at keeping that group of people who hates studying history as small as possible and enlarging that second group who considers history their passion. In , he was kidnapped by an Englishman who was exploring the coasts of Canada and New England and was carried off to England. There, he learned the English language. He eventually returned to America on another voyage of exploration in and was kidnapped again and taken to southern Spain. His abductors intended to sell him into slavery, but he was rescued by Catholic friars, with whom he lived until He returned once again to the New England coast, only to discover that his entire nation had been destroyed by disease some years before.
Shortly after his return, he met a group of English colonists who called themselves Pilgrims; they were astounded when he spoke to them in English. While Tisquantum lived in a changing world, American Indian society had not been static before it came into contact—and conflict—with Europeans. To the contrary, the process of change had begun centuries before Squanto stumbled upon the Pilgrims. Native peoples had lived for millennia in what eventually was known as the Americas.
Complex civilizations developed and evolved. The Aztec empire, located in what is today Mexico, was characterized by its military power. It was at the peak of its strength when its people first encountered Europeans.
Other complex societies, such as the Anasazi culture in the regions now called Arizona and New Mexico and the Hopewell culture in present-day Illinois, ascended in power and then mysteriously declined. Native people hunted, gathered, and grew an array of foods, including potatoes, squash, beans, and maize, that nourished millions of people in what would become the United States. In short, the Americas were not an empty land when the Europeans arrived.
Over the course of the centuries that followed, people from Europe, the Americas, and Africa together would create 1 Copyright Cengage Learning. This creation involved both an interaction between peoples of striking differences and a brutality of remarkable proportions. Perhaps at no other time did people with such different worldviews and social practices meet.
Indians, West Africans, and Europeans differed not only in appearance but also in such matters as work roles between women and men, notions of private property, religious belief, and governmental structures. Some of the new arrivals simply observed these differences, whereas others used them to justify conflict and savagery. The earliest European explorers were interested in gaining riches in the Americas and from Africa. Once they realized the abundance of wealth that the Americas offered, they sought to amass it.
Spanish conquistadors, for example, conquered the Aztec empire in and gained untold riches from it. Soon, native people found themselves enslaved to provide labor for burgeoning mines. Between and , over seven million pounds of silver were extracted from American lands by slaves for the Spanish empire. As other European states recognized the economic possibilities, they too searched for land, slaves, and riches. France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and England all attempted to build empires.
These empires came into conflict with one another and in contact with indigenous peoples. This contact between Americans, Africans, and Europeans often resulted in conflict and war. Perhaps even more important than overt conflict was a mysterious and hidden exchange of disease.
As native people were exposed to an array of diseases, ranging from smallpox to influenza with which they had had little prior contact, they suffered epidemics that weakened their societies and therefore their ability to contest additional European incursions. Like Squanto, the native people became traders, but they also became slaves and victims of strange new diseases. Their home, in effect, had become a new world for them as well as for the Europeans. In what ways did Europeans of different nationalities treat Indians?
What differences did Europeans focus upon between themselves and Indians? What role did violence play in creating the new world?
Was this period defined by conquest of one group over another or by contact among many groups? Document 1 is the Iroquois creation story. Pay attention to how this narrative is similar to and varies from other creation stories with which you are familiar. Decades before Columbus sailed, a Portuguese writer Document 2 chronicles one of the first expeditions to obtain slaves from West Africa. In its description of the Indians, his letter betrays an odd blending of tenderness and a brutal assessment of their potential uses.
Document 5 is a drawing of Nahua Indians from the sixteenth century infected with smallpox.
Although Europeans wrote most of the documents in this chapter, Document 7 is an exception. It is a transcription of an oral tradition that describes the arrival of the Dutch on Manhattan Island.
Document 6 is an engraving based on a drawing from the s. It shows a Secotan village on the outer banks of North Carolina. Notice how the Secotan organized space for housing, agriculture, and religious ceremonies. Document 8 is an English description of native people in what is now New England in , shortly before the bloody Pequot War.
Note how author William Wood, an early settler in Massachusetts Bay, pays particular attention to the varying conditions of women in the Indian and British worlds. The Iroquois Describe the Beginning of the World, n. In the beginning there was no world, no land, no creatures of the kind that are around us now, and there were no men.
But there was a great ocean which occupied space as far as anyone could see. Above the ocean was a great void of air. And in the air there lived the birds of the sea; in the ocean lived the fish and the creatures of the deep. Far above this unpeopled world, there was a SkyWorld. Here lived gods who were like people—like Iroquois. In the Sky-World there was a man who had a wife, and the wife was expecting a child.
The woman became hungry for all kinds of strange delicacies, as women do when they are with child. She kept her husband busy almost to distraction finding delicious things for her to eat…. She told her husband this. He knew it was wrong. But she insisted, and he gave in. So he dug a hole among the roots of this great sky tree, and he bared some of its roots.
He was terrified, for he had never expected to find empty space underneath the world. But his wife was filled with curiosity. She bent over and she looked down, and she saw the ocean far below. She leaned down and stuck her head through the hole and looked all around. No one knows just what happened next. Some say she slipped. Some say that her husband, fed up with all the demands she had made on him, pushed her. So she fell through the hole. As she fell, she frantically grabbed at its edges, but her hands slipped.
And so she began to fall toward the great ocean far below…. The great sea turtle came and agreed to receive her on his back. The birds placed her gently on the shell of the turtle, and now the turtle floated about on the huge ocean with the woman safely on his back…. When the woman recovered from her shock and terror, she looked around her. All that she could see were the birds and the sea creatures and the sky and the ocean.
And the woman said to herself that she would die. But the creatures of the sea came to her and said that they would try to help her and asked her what they could do. She told them that if they could get some soil, she could plant the roots stuck between her fingers, and from them plants would grow…. Then the woman began to walk in a circle around it, moving in the direction that the sun goes.
Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders The History Of The House Of Rothschild - Rense ; The Rothschilds have been in control of the world for a very long time, their tentacles reaching into many aspects of our daily lives, as is documented in the following timeline.
Blum Editor Major problems in American history. Volume II, Since The primary sources give students evidence to work with This collection serves as the primary anthology for the introductory survey course, covering the subject's entire chronological span.
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