Lear () by Edward Bond and Seven Lears () by Howard Barker use .. consider Bond's Lear () and Barker's Seven Lears () as attempts to. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research paper is to examine Bond's Lear in This question posed by Edward Bond in Author's Preface raises a series of. There are two easy assumptions to make about Edward Bond's Lear. The first is readings of Lear assume that Bond makes the political statement by means of.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||19.54 MB|
|PDF File Size:||8.46 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Edward Bond's Lear. Leslie Smith. Imagine, if you will, a mixture of the plays of Brecht and. Strindberg, Brecht's social and political purposiveness allied to. Special thanks are due to Edward Bond for his help and The text of Lear printed here is identical to the Modern Plays edition, and the page numbering is. Edward Bond's version of Lear's story embraces myth and reality, war and politics , Lear. By: Edward Bond Media of Lear Format: PDF eBook (Watermarked).
Once you have successfully made your exam-copy request, you will receive a confirmation email explaining that your request is awaiting approval. On approval, you will either be sent the print copy of the book, or you will receive a further email containing the link to allow you to download your eBook. For more information, visit our exam-copy area. Please note that we currently support the following browsers: Internet Explorer 9, 10 and 11; Chrome latest version, as it auto updates ; Firefox latest version, as it auto updates ; and Safari latest version, as it auto updates. For any other requests or concerns, please contact your Account Manager. Tell others about this book Lorem About Lear Edward Bond's version of Lear's story embraces myth and reality, war and politics, to reveal the violence endemic in all unjust societies.
Violence in Lear- Bonds portrayal of violence in Lear is heavily hammering to its audience. His brutal use of violence onstage sometimes is considered hyperbolic but that is, no doubt, the hard-core reality.
But This autopsy is followed by Bodices death in the hands of Carpenters soldiers who kicks her and bayonets her to death and removal of Lears eyes with an instrument by the prisoner. Lears death too was by a rifle shot from a farmers boy who has joined the army. SLIDE 5 5. Violence-viewed and read- What strikes us in the very beginning is the death of the worker in the opening scene. But it is not shown onstage. Perhaps because Bond intends to display onstage the acts of violence only and not the accidents.
So he skips the depiction of the accident but the shooting of the third worker is shown on stage. Lear kills the man himself and proves his paranoia to us.
It is not so striking to read about killing by pistol, being in the post-world war generation, but Bonds show of brutality lies in the process of his sentence.
It lies in how Lear justifies the murder of the worker. When read, we read that the workman is tied to the post and Lear delivering futile justification of his decision and the importance of protecting his people, failing to understand that the real threat to the people is he himself. But when we view the scene, the workman is tied to the post throughout Lears speech and encounter with the opposition from his daughters continuously remains the object of our sight.
While reading the text, the scene might take us away from the worker and bestow out full concentration on Lear; but during watching, we cannot disorient ourselves from the worker on the stage, tied to a post, waiting for the final verdict from Lear.
Naturally, our minds are more set on the anxiety over what shall fall upon the unfortunate worker.
So, the Study of Lears character becomes secondary. The reason behind such a ruthless decision of Lear is not of primary concern to us, whereas during reading, it is the individual Lear that we are bothered about. The death of the worker, killed by Lear, his body hanging as if to bow from the post, when witnessed onstage, is bound to arouse a reaction of the mass among the audience that this king needs to be dethroned. But when read, we take a moment to wonder why is Lear so delusional, as he says, I gave my life to these peopleWhen I am dead, my people will live in freedom and peace and remember my name, no- venerate it!
But the viewing experience is no doubt, more shocking. We are unprepared for the torture of Warrington and Fontanelles sadistic obsession for the pleasure to watch Warrington being inhumanly tortured.
Imagine Fontanelle jumping around gory Warrington, taking pleasure in his pain, and wanting to sit on his lungs, When read, it appears ridiculous and we realize that the daughters are not mentally very sane, but when performed, it horrifies us and hammers us to believe that the sisters are mentally perverted. Fontanelle jumping on Warringtons bloody hand and Bodice deafening him with her knitting needles, when viewed, gets exponentially harsher.
SLIDE 8 In Act 1 scene 7, soldiers are found to have tracked Lear and the gravediggers boy and his wife becomes a kind of collateral damage. Warrington and the gravediggers boys murder and the rape of Cordelia, though very horrifying, is not very unpredictable. SLIDE 9 A rape is not unheard of, but the high, short gasp of Cordelia from inside the house and the gravediggers boy falling dead goes to almost an unbearable extent. The soldiers are so perversely obsessed with violence that they kill the pig as well.
Bond might have included the killing of the pigs to produce the stage effect of brutality and extreme violence. We can close our eyes if the scene of violence becomes unbearable, but we cannot close our ears to resist the sounds.
The squealing of pigs serves that purpose. There is no running away from that horror.
When read, we are deprived of the sound effects, and thus the killing of the pigs holds to us its literary significance only, but the live slaughter, chiefly the squealing becomes very significant to the audience. They receive a direct impact of the brutality. When we read, we have the leisure to wonder, why are the pigs being killed, but as audience we cannot think as we are being hammered continuously, being directly involved with the action on stage.
The squealing of pigs as they are slaughtered becomes a kind of stage technique for better effects on the audience mind. It is significant both from literary and spectating point of view. The wounded soldier dies, and no one is bothered. In this case too, the reader has a minute to wonder, to judge the situation, but the audience, involved in the action, is quite likely to get frustrated, why isnt anyone reacting.
Imagine a man dying in front of a group of people and everyone ignores him as if there is nothing significant going on. Bond attempts to shock us with that reaction to hammer into us how trivial human life becomes in the process of revolution.
The reaction has a portrayal of what can be called a social callousness. Cordelia and her soldiers pick up their things and moves away, without a single glance at the soldier lying dead. The audience does not expect this. They expect a martyrs end for the soldier, but all they experience is silence. Readers begin to analyze the situation but the viewers are shocked with the lack of reaction, silence.
Bodice screams as the soldier kicks her and bayonets her 3times, and at the final bayonet, she gives a spasm and dies, too has a contributing audio-visual effect on the viewers. SLIDE 11 But, surpassing these all, the autopsy scene has the maximum potential to affect the audience.
When read, it fills us with pity and sympathy for Lear. SLIDE 12 The daughters body is cut open in front of the father and Lear desperately searches for any particular distortion in her organs that might be the cause of her inhuman nature.
The prisoner doctor who performs the autopsy points to Lear the particular organs and Lear says, The things are so beautifulHer body was made by the hand of a child, so sure and nothing unclean Did I make this- and destroy it?
Lear became conscious of his love for his daughter only when she was lying on the table, lifeless, cut into two.
But on stage, it is something beyond. The animalistic brutality becomes a method of proving that Fontanelle was nothing beyond a normal human being. When viewed, it strikes us more powerfully with the realization that the beauty of the human organs in this case is more than the alive human itself. In his play, law, order and technological advances are in no way related to common sense.
Rather, it disharmonizes them from their environment. The society Bond asks for requires a radical change from the society of King Lear and of his own time and place. Even though Bond prefers the primitive nature where man can live in the way they have biologically evolved, he also accepts that the advent of social institutions make it impossible for humans to turn back to their bio-sphere.
Thus, he claims that man, like his Lear, has to change the society to be a healthier place for life. In other words, they have to be responsible for the afflictions they have given each other and, at least, reduce them. For Shakespeare, to be natural is to be in harmony with law and order with which the authority has ideologized their subjects.
Bond argues that civilization, social institutions and technology rid man of his ordinary nature, making him a violent 4 creature in search of a return to harmony with his natural existence. Morality and civilization are not the ideal or perfection; instead, they are forces serving the tyranny of the ruler.
Furthermore, Bond expands on the social criticisms which might in fact be presented implicitly in King Lear. In Lear, Bond even dramatizes the aggression of the two sisters further.
I want to hear him scream! Bodice could even witness the torture quite calmly while knitting. Her knitting could be considered one of the emblems of civilization she has learned from her society.
In portraying these patterns, Bond announces through his drama that the civilization and socialized morality are the concepts by which human beings have been raised and governed, and they act as a wall restricting people from living according to their biological needs.
These concepts later become innate in their being, and they use them to justify their aggression towards others who reside upon the lower ladders of society than their own. There are many references to the concept of correspondences between the macrocosm and the body politic in the Renaissance. Rather, it takes on a double function. Thus, though there are orders and restraint as the absolute entity to which humans must aspire, the correspondences between the ladders of the Elizabethan system seek also to depict uncertainty as a part of the Chain, as one could fall from their place or move upward in the Chain.
The intertwining concepts of the correspondence between the macrocosm, body politic and microcosm in King Lear inheres in the King and the response of external nature towards his being, especially in the heath scene.
Here, one might argue that the locality in which Bond places his drama is not the place where Elizabethan values would be appropriate. Thus, the absences of these concepts seem normal. Firstly, the absence of the relation between the macrocosm and the body politic—le roi soleil 2 Norden, J.
A Christian familiar comfort quoted in Tillyard, , p. There were no storms, just Lear feeding himself on a leftover mumbling to himself rather serenely, not bellowing into the stormy night: My daughters have taken the bread from my stomach. They grind it with my tears and the cries of famished children—and eat.
I open my mouth and they place an old coin in my tongue. Lear here is portrayed as a running-away dog, asking for favor from his daughters. When the king and the nobles are brought down to the bottom of the chain, nature turns into chaos. In King Lear, when the King is driven away to the heath, the rain and the sky seem to lament for his loss and for the authority he has bestowed upon the wrong descendants.
Unlike Lear, who is, though, also escaping from his daughters to save his life, King Lear could retain his greatness through the storm breaking out as if the macrocosm is outraging at the crime done to its counterpart, the King. Thus, nature does not represent anyone nor it deemed able to take revenge for anyone.
The best nature could do in Lear is to cure him from the corruption of civilization he has grown old with and which he has set as a standard to raise his daughter and rule his subjects.
Redefinition of the idea of morality and its necessity for human being The interconnections between law, order, morality and what is considered natural human behavior is another correspondence between the social and the natural in King Lear. The idea of morality in Shakespeare is metaphysical and transcendental—the idea through which law and order are originated. First, there are the concepts of virtue and restraint as the striving for perfection to the upper hierarchy in the chain: the ideals needed to keep society safe, sound and in control.
Morality in King Lear finds its absolute paragon in Cordelia. And his characters are regulated by social morality, which is comparable to those in Shakespeare who live their lives according to the sets of values established by social institutions. Bond also insists on the ominous political implication of the ideas of virtue and restraint created by social institutions. In King Lear, the idea of virtue and morality is initiated by the Elizabethan belief in the hierarchy of beings and the righteous authority of the ruler who has been anointed by the divinity to have his right as the monarch.
In Lear, the ideas of virtue and morality still follow the same pattern, but Bond criticizes the system by showing the destructive consequences that follow along with it.
Bond re-characterizes the new Cordelia, the daughter not of a tyrannical king father but of a priest whose standard of social morality is inherited by her, to show that a person who is seen as virtuous could just be the same kind of ruler as Lear has been. Her system of morality is not different from that of Lear when he was king.
Bodice and Fontanelle are violent, as seen in their cruelty towards Warrington, because they have grown up all their life seeing the inhuman manner with which their father has treated the workers on the wall. The characters in Bond are represented to be living in a techno-sphere where everything relies on human-constructed objects, depriving man of the ability to gratify his biological desire.
The eye-removing machine is also a tool devised by technological advance only to make human suffering more casual. However, Bond stages the eye-removing scene of Lear as if it were a casual practice, accentuating his criticism of the modern worldview towards cruelty.
What man essentially needs is love, like King Lear, and to be raised with care regardless of regulation and decorum. His Lear, at the end of the play, performs such actions. In this action, Lear demonstrates, first, the act of change to his society by trying to exterminate the limits of society—the wall—he has set up by himself. Second, he takes the responsibility for the harms he has initiated into his society and shows the later generations working around the wall that they too could change their society.
Amplification of social criticism implicit in Shakespeare Justice in King Lear and Lear A traditional response … tends to treat Shakespeare as if he had the self-knowledge of modern man and fails to acknowledge the Tudor values that inform the text.
The idea of absolute monarchy in Elizabethan society helps eradicate or at least reduce the wrongs done by King Lear to his daughters. However, the plights King Lear has gone through can be accounted for as reimbursement he has to pay back to those he has wronged.
No institutional affiliation. LOG IN. Comparative Drama. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE.