PRACTICING WHAT WE PREACH: WORK MEASUREMENT AND related to work measurement, method improvement, safety, and ergonomic. Work study is a generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its. By applying method study and work measurement in the industry at production line-Surma for ladies bag, productivity has been improved by %. Keywords: .
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Work Measurement Methods. Haleh Byrne Work Measurement is determination of the length of ▫Efficiency Improvement Scope and Requirement . ▫System. There is a close link between method study and work measurement. Method Work methods: Improving the ways in which the work is done (methods) improves . PDF | A case study research was conducted at a local car seat namely method study and work measurement offer a systematic and.
The time study procedure steps of time study Selection of Job Select the operator for study Recording of details Measure the duration of each element Calculating representative time of each element Convert observed time into normal time Calculate relaxation and other allowances Calculate Standard time. Time study can be performed depending on the accuracy of stopwatch method, time recording machine and motion picture camera. Time study and its application. Work Sampling: Work sampling is defined as A technique in which a statistically competent number of instantaneous observations are taken, over a period of time, of a group of machines, process or workers. Each observation records what is seen to happen and the percentage of observations recorded for a particular activity or delay is a measure of percentage of time observed by the occurrence.
Correct normal equipment e. Quality standard and checks f. Experienced qualified motivated worker g. Method of timing h.
Method of assessing relative performance i. Elemental breakdown j. Definition of break points k. Recording media One of the most critical requirements for time study is that of elemental breakdown.
There are some general rules concerning the way in which a job should be broken down into elements. They include the following. Elements should be easily identifiable, with definite beginnings and endings so that, once established, they can be repeatedly recognised.
These points are known as the break points and should be clearly described on the study sheet. Elements should be as short as can be conveniently timed by the observer.
As far as possible, elements — particularly manual ones — should be chosen so that they represent naturally unified and distinct segments of the operation. This assessment is known as rating, the definition being given in BS : The numerical value or symbol used to denote a rate of working.
Standard rating is also defined in this British Standard BS as: "The rating corresponding to the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work, provided that they adhere to the specified method and that they are motivated to apply themselves to their work.
If the standard rating is consistently maintained and the appropriate relaxation is taken, a qualified worker will achieve standard performance over the working day or shift.
Rating should be expressed as 'X' BS. Below is an illustration of the Standard Scale: Rating walking pace 0 no activity 50 very slow 75 steady brisk standard rating very fast exceptionally fast The basic time for a task, or element, is the time for carrying out an element of work or an operation at standard rating.
Allowance for unoccupied time and for interference may be important for the measurement of machine-controlled operations, but they do not always appear in every computation of standard time. Relaxation allowance, on the other hand, has to be taken into account in every computation, whether the job is a simple manual one or a very complex operation requiring the simultaneous control of several machines. A contingency allowance will probably figure quite frequently in the compilation of standard times; it is therefore convenient to consider the contingency allowance and relaxation allowance, so that the sequence of calculation which started with the completion of observations at the workplace may be taken right through to the compilation of standard time.
Contingency allowance A contingency allowance is a small allowance of time which may be included in a standard time to meet legitimate and expected items of work or delays, the precise measurement of which is uneconomical because of their infrequent or irregular occurrence.
Relaxation allowance A relaxation allowance is an addition to the basic time to provide the worker with the opportunity to recover from physiological and psychological effects of carrying out specified work under specified conditions and to allow attention to personal needs. The amount of the allowance will depend on the nature of the job. A final allowance is that of Interference which is included whenever an operator has charge of more than one machine and the machines are subject to random stoppage.
In normal circumstances the operator can only attend to one machine, and the others must wait for attention. This machine is then subject to interference which increased the machine cycle time. It is now possible to obtain a complete picture of the standard time for a straightforward manual operation.
Activity Sampling Activity sampling is a technique in which a large number of instantaneous observations are made over a period of time of a group of machines, processes or workers.
Each observation records what is happening at that instant and the percentage of observations recorded for a particular activity or delay is a measure of the percentage of time during which the activity or delay occurs. The advantages of this method are that It is capable of measuring many activities that are impractical or too costly to be measured by time study.
One observer can collect data concerning the simultaneous activities of a group. Activity sampling can be interrupted at any time without effect.
The disadvantages are that It is quicker and cheaper to use time study on jobs of short duration. It does not provide elemental detail.
The type of information provided by an activity sampling study is: a. The proportion of the working day during which workers or machines are producing. The proportion of the working day used up by delays. The reason for each delay must be recorded. The relative activity of different workers and machines. In response to your request, there is some guidance I can offer you from real workplace situations.
It is all about the least time wasteful way to do a task. You can also look at Formula 1 racing car pit crew practises, as their work must be accurate and fast and they have designed pit stop activities that are world class machinery maintenance methods.
Another Lean technique used by manufacturers that might be useful to you is Value Stream Mapping. Usually it is used at work process level to measure variation in selected variables and parameters associated with the process, but it can be applied on work tasks as a technique to investigate work time variation and time losses from wasteful actions. Once you know where the variations and losses are excessive you can use methods engineering and work measurement to control the variation standard deviation.
One interesting event that I saw recently was a manufacturing company that introduced job time measurement software and got all employees to book the times taken in doing their work. There was massive difference across employees doing the same job. Some of it was due to laziness and ignorance.
Methods engineering and work measurement could be applied to redesign the work flow and develop standardised work tasks for all employees to use. It might be of value to you to investigate how companies that use job time tracking can then use methods engineering and work measurement to optimise individual tasks. This is an area of industrial engineering where the Accuracy Controlled Enterprise 3T Target-Tolerance-Test work quality control method provides powerful solutions.
Finally, a warning. All that you do with methods engineering and work measurement to improve work flow can be sabotaged by the worker.