The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: P-Z (vol 3). Home · The Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. forces were defeated. Within Egypt, Shabaqa showed an interest in various temples: at Memphis he buried another. Apis bull and had an ancient cosmogony of. Dartmouth Medal Winner Association of American Publishers Best Multivolume Reference, Humanities ALA/RUSA Outstanding Reference.
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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Vol.1 - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Vol.3 - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt / Margaret R. Bunson.—Rev. ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (hardcover). 1.
The site is on desert land, some 30 meters about feet above sea level, but it lies within the alluvial area of the Nile's ancient deposits. From the eighteenth to the twentieth dynasties, the town of Miwer, as Abu Ghurob was then named, provided a palace or a residence and harem for the convenience and entertainment of royalty, who wanted to indulge in the sports of fishing and fowling in the marshy and fertile Faiyum Depression. The principal monuments include a temple, constructed in the reign of Thutmose III r. All were institutions in which the ruler's administrators, officials, and workers, such as craftsmen, servants, and laborers, were employed. Their housing formed part of the town site and, outside the town, various cemetery areas were established for both the wealthy and the poor inhabitants. Mi-wer was occupied until the reign of Harnesses V BCE and was probably abandoned soon after. Abu Ghurob is of archaeological and cultural significance as one of the few settlement sites of the New Kingdom to have been excavated.
It may also explain the marginalization of the site in the attempts at historic reconstructions of the fourth dynasty. The new program aims at a reevaluation of the reign of Djedefre. In the early s, the discovery of a large number of broken royal statues had actually allowed Chassinat to suspect signs of a damnatio memoriae Lat.
Today, however, a few stratigraphic sections demonstrated that those ancient destructions traced back only to the Roman period, when the site was occupied for a very long time. In the northeastern part of the complex, one can actually find reused remains that testify to a Roman presence. Quarrying of the site materials, which occurred until the nineteenth century, left a smashed and open pyramid base. Its interior shows elements arranged in the form of a T, including a north-south descending ramp and, perpendicular to it, a shaft, which should contain the royal tomb.
According to the first results, the size of the pyramid was nearly the same as that of Menkaure: At foundation level, the foundation courses have lopsided beds of These become incrementally horizontal in their angles especially at the place of the foundation deposits.
In the pyramid's interior, the excavation of the descending passage yielded, apart from a copper-ax deposit, guide markings on the rock, which determined that the original passage slope leading to the funerary apartment was Some graffiti left by quarrymen yielded the name of Djedefre in situ, as well as the mention of the first year of his reign BCE.
In the central shaft, only the foundation level was saved; nevertheless, the discovery of a few architectural fragments of limestone and granite described the location of the royal burial. As of the s, this substructure seems to show marked similarity with that of the northern pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan. Grimal, Nicolas. Summary of the preliminary report on the first excavation season. Grimal, Nicholas. Summary of the preliminary report.
Maragioglio, Vito, and Celeste Rinaldi. L'architettura delle piramidi menfite, vol. Rapallo, Architectural description of the pyramids of Djedefre and Khafre. Marchand, Sylvie, and Micliel Baud. Un depot a 1'entree des enclos orientaux. Analysis of the pottery discovered in and Miiller, Han. Presentation of the inscribed statuary fragments, kept in Munich, in the Staatliche Sammlung Agyptischer Kunst.
Valloggia, Michel. Reunions triinestrielles et communications d'archeologie , General presentation of the archaeological and historical aspects of the site that seem problematical. Rapport preliminaire de la campagne Description of the work of the first season.
Rapport preliminaire de la canipagne First noted in European literature by Johann Burckhardt in , Abu Simbel has since become one of the most famous of monuments in the Nile Valley.
Following the decision to build a new High Dam at Aswan in the early s, the temples were dismantled and relocated in on the desert plateau 64 meters about feet above and meters feet west of their original site. The ancient name for the region, Meha, was first documented in the late eighteenth dynasty, when the pharaohs Ay and Horemheb had rock-cut chapels hewn in the hills just to the south of Abu Simbel, at Gebel Shems and Aba-huda. The original concept behind the Abu Simbel temples was also of eighteenth dynasty origin, the model be.
The Great Temple at Abu Simbel was the first of a series of four temples built during the reign of Ramesses II, which formed a unit, and each was dedicated to one of the four state gods: The temples at Abu Simbel were begun in the early years of the reign and were completed by its twenty-fifth year.
No precinct wall, or dromos, now survives in front of the Great Temple; that such a precinct wall may originally have existed has been suggested by the brick wall to the northern side of the temple, with a pylon and gateway that lead toward the Small Temple and the mudbrick walls that enclose the entrance to the chapel on the south side.
The ramp to the terrace is flanked by two large stelae. Along the terrace, statues of both the living and the mummified king alternate with images of falcon deities. An open solar chapel, with an altar the baboons and obelisks are now in the Cairo Museum , stands at the northern end of the terrace; at its southern end is inscribed a version of the "Marriage Stela," which recorded Ramesses Us marriage with a Hittite princess, dated to Year 34 of the king's reign.
ABUSIR 5 The rock-cut facade, shaped like a pylon, is dominated by four colossal seated statues of the king, each 22 meters 67 feet high; these are flanked by much smaller standing images of his mother and wife, with very small figures of sons or daughters standing between his feet.
An earthquake in antiquity damaged the colossal figures flanking the doorway; the upper part of the southern colossus fell, but the northern figure suffered less damage and was restored in the reign of Sety II. Above the main entrance, a massive niche contains a personification of the king's name. The left doorjamb has a lengthy cryptic inscription of the king's titulary.
The temple was entirely cut in the rock cliff, which necessitated some adaptations of the classic temple plan. The entrance opens onto a hall lined by eight square pillars, with standing statues of the king; this indicates an equivalency to an open festival court, of the type found in analogous temples at Thebes e.
Reliefs of the Battle of Kadesh cover the northern wall, with other military scenes in relief on the southern wall. The Kadesh reliefs are unusual in that they were signed by the chief sculptor, Piaay, son of Khanefer. The scenes flanking the door into the hall depict the king, standing in front of Amun and Mut, on one side, with Re-Horakhty and lus-aas on the other; in both scenes, the seated image of the deified king was added, between the two deities, and this alteration indicates that the deification of Ramesses II occurred during the construction of the temple the image of the divine king being integral to the decoration of the inner rooms.
Four suites of rooms, usually called treasuries, lie off this hall. Two falcon-headed sphinxes were in front of the doorway that led to the second hall, and they, along with a statue of the viceroy of Nubia, Paser II, were removed to the British Museum in London. A hall with four square columns has religious scenes. Beyond it lies the sanctuary, with four rock-cut statues of the presiding deities: The axis of the temple is arranged so that, on two days of the year 21 February; 21 October , the rising sun illuminates the king's image.
The decoration of the main rooms is in sunken relief, with rich polychrome painting, but the side chambers are not so fine and the color scheme is limited. Immediately to the south of the Great Temple is another single rockcut chamber, with remains of a preceding brick court or hall; this is designated the birth-house in its inscriptions. The two main walls carry depictions of sacred barks; one is the bark of Thoth of Amunhery-ib Abahuda , and the other is the sacred bark of Ramesses II.
The Small Temple lies a short distance to the north. Its facade takes the form of a double pylon with six colossal standing statues 10 meters 33 feet in height, carved from the rock; there are also two of Nefertari and four of Ramesses II, each flanked by small figures of their children.
The hall has six square pillars, and the faces on the central aisle were carved with Hathor-headed sistra in high relief. A narrow vestibule carries a unique scene of the coronation of Nefertari by the goddesses Isis and Ha-thor. The statue in the sanctuary is of the goddess Hathor, in the form of a cow, emerging from the rock, with a small statue of the king in front of her.
The reliefs on the sanctuary walls depict Ramesses II worshipping himself and Nefertari: Throughout the temple, the relief is of good quality, depicting rather slender, attenuated figures. The whole was colored in a scheme in which white and gold predominate. The cliff surrounding both temples carries numerous rock inscriptions made for viceroys and other high officials of the reign. Abou-Simbel et I'epopee de la decouverte.
Brussels, A history of the temple since the earliest European visitors. Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane, and C. Le Petit Temple d'Abou Simbel. Cairo, Save-Soderbergh, Torgny, ed. Temples and Tombs of Ancient Nubia: An account of the rescue of Abu Simbel and other Nubian monuments.
Its name was derived from the Egyptian Per-Usire, in Greek, Busiris, meaning "the place of worship of the god Osiris," ruler of the land of the dead. Although Abusir had already been inhabited by hunters in the Middle Paleolithic and was settled in the Neolithic, it became especially important in the fifth dynasty, when the first ruler, Userkaf ruled c. Sahure was the first to build himself a pyramid complex that is regarded as a milestone in the development of royal tombs; the dimensions of his pyramid were smaller than those of the fourth dynasty pyramids, but his mortuary and valley temples achieved greater importance.
The mortuary temple was designed with finely worked building materials: Sahure's valley temple on the edge of the desert served as a landing place, linked to the Nile by a canal. A causeway led from this temple to the mortuary temple; some fragments of the causeway's relief decoration included scenes of the completion celebrations buildings, starving Bedouins, and other scenes. The pyramid complex of Sahure's successor, Kakai ruled c.
The pyramid, which was changed in the course of construction from a stepped into a true pyramid, rose to a height of approximately 74 meters feet. The casing was, however, left unfinished, like the remaining parts of the complex, as a result of the ruler's premature death. His mortuary temple was constructed of mud bricks and wood by his sons and heirs, Neferefre Kakai and Newoserre Any.
At the end of the nineteenth century, tomb robbers discovered a papyrus archive called the First Abusir Archive in the storage rooms of the mortuary temple. These records date from the last part of the fifth dynasty to the end of the sixth.
On the southern side of Neferirkare Kakai's pyramid is the smaller pyramid complex of his wife, Khentkawes II.
Valuable finds from the queen s mortuary temple have included numerous papyrus fragments the Second Abusir Archive and other materials that throw new light on com. Neferirkare Kakai's eldest son Neferefre ruled for only a brief period, perhaps two years. His unfinished pyramid was changed into a ma. The finds there have included stone statue fragments of the ruler, as well as papyri from yet another temple archive the Third Abusir Archive , roughly the same age as the Second Abusir Archive.
A cult abattoir, known as "the Sanctuary of the Knife," was connected with that mortuary temple. Fragments of pyramid foundations have been uncovered between Sahure's pyramid and Userkaf's sun temple and those have been hypotheti-cally attributed to Neferefre Kakai's ephemeral successor?
To remain near his family, the next fifth dynasty ruler, Newoserre Any, built his pyramid at the northeastern corner of the pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai, appropriating the unfinished foundations of its valley temple and a part of its causeway for his own complex.
The open courtyard of Newoserre Any's mortuary temple was adorned with papyrus-form columns of red granite, with relief decora-. ABYDOS tion that in many respects resembled that of Sahure; but the normal, rectangular temple plan had to be abandoned in favor of an Lshaped outline, for lack of space.
Newoserre Any's wife, Reputnub, does not appear to be buried in the vicinity of her husband's tomb. Her tomb may be one of the pyramid complexes marked "no. XXIV" and "no. XXV" on the Lepsius archaeological map that were demonstrably constructed in that time. Excavations in pyramid 24 "no. XXIV" have provided valuable information about its mode of construction, but the name of its owner remains unknown. Newoserre Any's successor, Mekauhor, abandoned the Abusir necropolis.
Other members of the royal family and courtiers and officials of that time were also buried in the vicinity of the pyramids. The largest of their tombs belonged to the vizier Ptahshepses, Newoserre Any's son-in-law; that twice-extended mastaba almost rivaled the royal complexes in size, architectural plan, and quality of decorative relief.
Its eight-stemmed lotus-form columns of fine limestone are unique. Not far from this is the mastaba of the princesses Khameremebty and Meretites, two daughters of Newoserre Any. Nearby are the mastabas of the princesses Khekeretnebty and Hetjetnub, daughters of Isesi. A large cemetery, with tombs of dignitaries from the third dynasty to the sixth was discovered on the southern edge of Abusir; these include the partially intact tomb of the vizier Kar and his family, from the time of Pepy I.
Also situated in this part of Abusir is the tomb of Fetekti, built at the end of the fifth dynasty. At the northern edge, there is a fifth dynasty burial ground with tombs of those from lower social ranks. During the First Intermediate Period, there were no royal mortuary cults at Abusir. Although briefly revived at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, from this period to the Late period, Abusir became increasingly a cemetery for the common people. A cemetery in southwestern Abu-sir was built to contain huge shaft tombs that were dated to the end of the twenty-sixth dynasty and the beginning of the twenty-seventh.
His tomb was constructed with a cunning system of linked shafts, filled with sand; this was supposed to prevent access to the burial chamber. The southwestern excavation also uncovered the intact tomb of lufaa, director of the palace.
The history of archaeological research in Abusir, in which Germans, French, Swiss, Egyptians, and Czechs have participated, began in the s. Yet only two expeditions have carried out longterm and extensive excavations therethat of the German Oriental Society, headed by Ludwig Borchardt, from the beginning of the twentieth century, and the ongoing expedition of the Czech Institute of Egyptology, which began in the s. Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Ne-user-re'.
Leipzig, and Borchardt, Ludwig. Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Sayhu-re', vol. Der Ban. Leipzig, ; vol. Die Wondbilder. Vemer, Miroslav. Fat-gotten Pharaohs, Lost Pyramids: Prague, A comprehensive, richly illustrated account of the history of Abusir, its main features and artifacts, and the history of their excavation.
Verner, Miroslav. Abusir III: The Pyramid Complex of Klientkaus. On the western side of the Nile, the site is on the edge of the low desert, 15 kilometers 9. Greater Abydos spreads over 8 square kilometers 5 square miles and is composed of archaeological remains from all phases of ancient Egyptian civilization.
Abydos was significant in historical times as the main cult center of Osiris, ancient Egypt's primary funerary god. Many cult structures were dedicated to Osiris, and vast cemetery fields were developed, incorporating not only the regional population but also nonlocal people who chose to build tombs and commemorative monuments at Abydos.
In the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods, Abydos may have functioned primarily as a satellite funerary center for the nome capital of Thinis, which is perhaps to be located in the vicinity of the modem town of Girga or Balliana at the edge of the Nile.
The significance of Abydos, however, exceeded that of a provincial burial center. It was the burial place of the first kings of Early Dynastic times first and second dynasties , and during the subsequent Old and Middle Kingdoms Abydos evolved into a religious center of great importance. The most striking buildings standing at Abydos are the wellpreserved New Kingdom temples of Sety I and Ramesses II nineteenth dynasty ; the Early Dynastic funerary enclosure of King Khasekhemwy second dynasty ; and the walled enclosure called the Kom es-Sultan, which was the location of the early town and the main temple dedicated to Osiris.
The greater part of the site, however, remains concealed beneath the sand, a fact recognized in the Arabic name of the modern town: Arabah el-Madfunah "the buried Arabah". Abydos can be discussed in terms of its major areas. North Abydos.
The area includes the Kom es-Sultan, the temple precinct, Umm el-Gaab, funerary enclosures, and cemeteries. Kom es-Sultan and the temple precinct of OsirisKhentyamentiu.
North Abydos was the major focal point of early activity, and it was here that an early town and. ABYDOS original contents, several large Early Dynastic tombs were identified as the burial places of the earliest kings of the historic period.
Emery exposed a cemetery consisting of large mastabas of the first and second dynasties. This led many scholars to interpret the Abydos royal tombs as "cenotaphs," or symbolic tombs built by the early kings in an ancestral burial ground for religious reasons.
More recently, scholars have accepted Abydos as the burial place of the earliest kings of dynastic times, whose roots were in the Thinite nome. Renewed archaeological work since by the German Archaeological Institute, directed by G. Dreyer, has recorded in detail the development of a royal cemetery beginning in the Naqada I period.
The history of this cemetery at Umm el-Gaab covering much of the fourth millennium BCE , provides evidence for the increasing wealth and complexity of society in the late Predynastic period. Umm el-Gaab is especially important because of the evidence it provides for the emergence of political power culminating in pharaonic kingship and the associated centralized state around the beginning of dynastic times c. In a locality designated Cemetery U, royal tombs of late Naqada II and Naqada III display the differentiation associated with a stratified society and the existence of powerful kings who controlled considerable resources.
Inscribed labels from the largest Predynastic tomb tomb U-J, dating to the Naqada Ilia period provide the earliest evidence for use of the hieroglyphic writing system in Egypt.
In the Early Dynastic period, Umm el-Gaab was the burial place of the first pharaohs of the historic dynasties as well as their immediate Dynasty "0" predecessors. All the rulers of the first dynasty, as well as two kings of the second dynasty Peribsen and Khasekhemwy , were buried at Abydos, a phenomenon which expresses the continued importance of dynastic associations between the first kings of the historic period and their Predynastic fore-bears.
Tombs at Umm el-Gaab of the first and second dynasties are much larger than those of the Predynastic period and typically consist of a central burial chamber surrounded by storerooms and subsidiary burials.
The tombs from the Predynastic were subterranean, with little more than a mound and upright stelae marking locations. Early Dynastic funerary enclosures. The primary aboveground structures associated with the Early Dynastic royal tombs were the funerary enclosures, which were built not at Umm el-Gaab but rather adjacent to the Kom es-Sultan. From the time of the early first dynasty, these structures consisted of large, rectangular mudbrick enclosures employing the "palace-facade" style of architecture.
Two still stand today: After initial excavation by Petrie, work in by D. O'Connor reexamined parts of the interiors of these structures and exposed twelve buried boats on the east side of the Khasekhemwy enclosure. The specific functions of these funerary enclosures remain an issue of debate, but they probably played a role in both the funerary ceremony itself and the long-term maintenance of a royal cult.
Architectural elements articulated in the funerary enclosure of Khasekhemwy suggest continuity of form and religious function with the Step Pyramid complex of Djoser third dynasty at Saqqara.
Development of the cult of Osiris. The burial place of the first kings at Umm el-Gaab was of supreme importance in the later development of Abydos. By the time of the Old Kingdom, Abydos was already understood as the burial place of Osiris, ruler of the netherworld and personification of the deceased pharaoh reborn into ruler-ship in the afterlife. During the Old Kingdom, Osiris merged with Khentyamentiu. By the time of the early Middle Kingdom, there is evidence that Umm el-Gaab was understood as the burial place of Osiris himself; one tomb in particular, that of King Djer, appears to have been thought to be the deity's tomb.
A yearly procession from the temple of Osiris-Khentyamentiu in the Kom es-Sultan reenacted the myth of the god's murder by Seth and his burial and rebirth as ruler of the netherworld. This procession, in which the god's image was carried aboard the sacred neshmet bark, progressed from the Kom es-Sultan through a low desert wadi leading up to Umm el-Gaab.
The offerings presented to Osiris by pilgrims, especially in the New Kingdom and later periods, created the vast pottery-covered mounds that gave Umm el-Gaab its Arabic name.
North and Middle cemeteries. From the time of the late Old Kingdom, the temple and cult of Osiris-Khentyamentiu created the impetus for the development of large cemeteries immediately west of the Kom es-Sultan and flanking the route of the Osiris procession to Umm el-Gaab. Excavation of the Northern and Middle cemeteries by a series of archaeologistsMariette , Peet , Garstang , Petrie early s , and Frankfort , among othersproduced a large volume of objects; material from the North and Middle cemeteries constitutes an important body of funerary material in collections throughout the world.
The North Cemetery developed on the northern side of the wadi around the area of the Early Dynastic royal funerary enclosures and extends westward for one-half kilometer in the direction of Umm el-Gaab. Its development is associated primarily with the Middle Kingdom and later periods. An important area associated with the cult of Osiris lies adjacent to the west side of the Kom es-Sultan; there, large clusters of tombs as well as private.
These chapels were intended to provide an eternal association between the deceased and the god Osiris, and the area of the North Cemetery closest to the Kom es-Sultan was called rwd n ntr '3 "Terrace of the Great God". This area has produced an immense number of inscribed stelae and statues, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century through the work of G.
Maspero, A. Mariette, and antiquities dealers such as Anastasi. More recent archaeological work was undertaken by the Pennsylvania-Yale Expedition codirected by D. O'Connor and W. The Middle Cemetery extends along the southern side of the wadi, also running nearly a kilometer toward Umm el-Gaab; it was developed from the Old Kingdom onward.
Flanked on north and south by the extensive nonroyal burial grounds of the North and Middle cemeteries, the sacred processional route to Umm el-Gaab was protected by royal decree from burials and other development. A series of royal stelae set up at the terminal ends of the processional route by the time of the Middle Kingdom demarcated this sacred area. Recent work in by M. Pouls has discovered a limestone chapel of Thutmose III, which may be part of the formalized layout of the processional route during the New Kingdom.
Middle Abydos. The area includes the Sety I temple and the Osireion. Temple of Sety I. Standing one kilometer to the south of the Kom es-Sultan and at the northern edge of the area often called "Middle Abydos," the temple of Sety I is the largest well-preserved building of the New Kingdom at Abydos. The southern sanctuary, dedicated to Sety himself, celebrates his deification as a deceased king. To the south of the Sety sanctuary, the King's Gallery contains a list of Sety's predecessors on the throne of Egypt.
While including veneration of Egypt's principal deities, the Sety temple is most explicitly focused on the king's associations with Osiris and his deified predecessors, fully within the tradition of New Kingdom royal mortuary temples. A rear gateway set within a brick pylon is oriented to the site of the archaic royal cemetery at Umm el-Gaab; like the temple complex.
In addition to the Sety temple's orientation to Umm elGaab, behind the temple stands a subterranean structure, the Osireion, which functioned as a symbolic tomb or cenotaph of Osiris. The structure was excavated primarily in by M. Murray, working with Petrie. The main central chamber contains a central platform and ten monolithic red granite piers. The architecture is intentionally archaizing in style mimicking the monolithic architecture of the fourth dynasty and was perhaps intended to provide a suitable burial structure for Osiris.
The central platform is surrounded by water channels meant to represent the primeval mound of creation surrounded by the waters of Nun. Attached to the main chamber are other chambers and passages containing scenes and texts from the Book of Gates and Book of Going Forth by Day Book of the Dead , standard elements of Ramessid royal tombs.
Farther north stand the well-preserved remains of a temple built by Ramesses II. Remains of other Ramessid royal buildings lie along the desert edge between the Sety temple and the Kom es-Sultan. The area of Middle Abydos south of the Sety temple is the leastknown area of the site because the modern town of Arabah elMadfunah covers most of the surface of this part of Abydos. In all likelihood, this was the location of the major concentration of settlement from the New Kingdom onward.
Remnants of architectural elements and inscribed temple blocks from a number of periods suggest that remnants of more cult buildings are yet to be exposed south of the Sety temple. South Abydos. South Abydos covers about 2 square kilometers 1. In early times, the area was used for Predynastic habitation and cemeteries; however, the major development of this area of Abydos occurred in the Middle Kingdom, when the first of a series of royal cult complexes was established by Senwosret III.
Complex of Senwosret HI. Extending between the cliffs and cultivation, the Senwosret III mortuary complex consists of a massive subterranean tomb with a royal mortuary temple. It was initially examined by D. Randall-Maclver and A. Weigall of the Egypt Exploration Fund between and , and renewed work during the s by the University of Pennsylvania, directed by J.
Wegner, has excavated the mortuary temple, which is dedicated to the deceased Senwosret III and celebrates his unification with Osiris. A large planned settlement just south of the mortuary complex is similar in scale and organization to the town at Illahun that is attached to the pyramid complex of Senwosret II.
Work in identified the name of this temple-town foundation as "Enduring are the Places of Khakaure Justified in Abydos. One-half kilometer south of the Senwosret III complex stand the remains of a series of monuments erected by the eighteenth dynasty king Ahmose, which were initially examined by A. Mace and C. Currelly for the Egypt Exploration Fund. A pyramid and temple situated at the edge of cultivation are associated with a subterranean tomb near the base of the desert cliffs. This was the last royal pyramid to be erected in Egypt.
In , S. Harvey reexamined the pyramid temple and exposed remains of a small temple stamped with the titulary of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari and possibly dedicated to her cult. Between the Ahmose pyramid and underground tomb is a small chapel dedicated to Ahmose's grandmother.
Queen Tetisheri. A wellpreserved stela, now in the Cairo Museum, was discovered in the Tetisheri chapel. A final monument belonging to the Ahmose complex is the terrace temple, on the lower part of the hill; it appears to be incomplete, and its function remains unclear.
David, Rosalie. A Guide to Religious Ritual at Abydos.
Dreyer, Gtinter, et al. Preliminary Reports on Work at Umm el-Gaab. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologische Instituts Kairo , , , , , Dreyer, Gtinter. Umm el-Qaab I. Mainz, Griffiths, J.
The Origins of Osiris. Leiden, Harvey, Stephen. Kemp, Barry. Murray, Margaret. The Osireion. O'Connor, David. Otto, Eberhard.
Egyptian Art and the Cults of Osiris and Amun. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Simpson, William K. The Offering Chapels of Dynasties 12 and New Haven and Philadelphia, Spiegel, Joachim. Die Gotter von Abydos: Studien wm agyptischen Synkretismus, Gottinger Orientforschungen, 4. Wiesbaden, His successor, Darius I, abrogated Cambyses' unpopular decree.
He constructed an immense temple to Amun Re in the Kharga Oasis, and he succeeded in dredging the navigable route from the Nile to the Red Sea from Bubastis across the Wadi Tummilat to Lake Timsah at the Bitter Lakes , which he marked with large stelae bearing commemorative inscriptions in hieroglyphs and cuneiform.
Diodorus lists Darius I as the sixth and last legislator; he is better called a codifier, since Demotic Papyrus, , verso, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris he had the laws that were in force transcribed on papyrus in both Egyptian Demotic and Aramaic the official language of the empire until Amasis' final year.
Aryandes, the first satrap of Egypt, was executed for being a rebel. Arsames held the office of satrap during the reign of Darius II. The satrap Sabace Arrian Anabasis 2. The last satrap, Ma-zakes Arrian Anabasis 3. Cambridge, Briant, P. Ie cas de 1'Egypte. Dandamaev, M. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire.
Lloyd, A. Posener G. La premiere domination perse en Egypte. Wegner, Josef. A Modem Journal of Ancient Egypt 6. Egypt, together with Cyprus and Phoenicia, then formed the sixth satrapy of the Persian Empire. The satrap Pers. The garrison posts remained at Mareotis, Daphnis, and Elephantine where a Jewish colony with a temple to Yahweh had existed on the island since the time of Apries; it was destroyed in BCE.
This regime was recognized in Egypt at least until BCE. According to an inscription on a stela from the Serapeum, from the sepulchre for the Apis bulls dated to the sixth year of Cambyses' reign, the king had assumed the Egyptian royal epithet mswty R', as we know from the autobiography of Wedjahorresene, court doctor during the reigns of Cambyses and Darius I.
Incised on Wedja-horresene's naophorus block statue, now in the Vatican Museum, is a depiction of him in Persian dress with Persian-made bracelets; there is a depiction in the same manner of another official, the treasurer Ptahhotep on another Serapeum stela, now in the Brooklyn Museum of Art.
Egyptian hatred of Cambyses, referred to by the Greeks Herodotus 3. The three military expeditions on which he embarked against Carthage, the oasis of the Libyan desert, and Nubia were serious failures. Cambyses died in BCE in. State Administration Administration is the socioeconomic institution installed to control resources within a defined terrain, the estate.
In state administration, control operates at the national level, and in Egypt its client is the royal court. Control is a function of technological development. Ancient technologies, particularly those of communication, do not permit instant response across large distances. Sources on the subject indicate a journey time of about three weeks for a ship traveling from the Nile Delta upriver to southern Upper Egypt; this creates a response lag of about six weeks, short for the ancient world but not comparable to modern conditions.
The premodem state characteristically enjoyed only limited administrative reach into the lives of the inhabitants of its territory. Such differences necessitate careful translation and interpretation in areas like security army and the border and revenues defining rent and tax. The sources are not explicit on the system of land rights in Egypt; in most documents, the frequency and basis of revenue collection are not stated.
The apparent monopoly of Egypt's royal court in many areas may reflect its dominance in economic or ideological terms, more than juridical regime. From its invention in the late fourth millennium BCE, writing technology script and material played a major role in administration.
Nonetheless, administration is first a practice based on social relations, rather than a set of documents.
The texts provide extensive data on administration, but this remains a partial view of the reasons and methods of any social control of resources. Archaeological evidence may help to complete the picture in the case of urban storage, building, and quarrying expeditions, but it has not yet enlightened us on irrigation or rural organization. The Egyptians distinguished between local and national levels of administration by prefixing to a title a phrase invoking royal authority: When a provincial governor prefixed the phrase to his main title, it might indicate that he had been promoted to that inner group of national officials.
A seventeenth dynasty royal decree records a "king's seal-bearer, mayor of Coptos," at a time when the king ruled from nearby Thebes over only southern Egypt. Often the royal prefix-title distinguished national treasurers or overseers of estates and workforces from men with identical function at a lower level, in one province, or on one estate. Coordination between national and provincial levels of administration seems to have fallen to the tyty "highest official" , a title conventionally translated "vi.
State Administration 13 zier" in Egyptology. It is less easy to identify court officials responsible in each period for connections between Egypt and foreign dominions.
Ancient Egypt had two centers: The personal center had always to be on the move, to maintain the unity of the state. Royal travel was a religious motif, cast in the Early Dynastic period as the Following of Horus. In the Middle Kingdom textual record, the king travels to different places always with a religious mission, to establish or renew cult in specific localities.
Simultaneous military and economic objectives may be discerned; royal visits to the First Cataract of the Nile in the sixth dynasty and to Medamud in the thirteenth dynasty included the reception of foreign rulers. Since divine kingship united religious, military, and economic terrain, the historian cannot assume precedence for one of the three in revenue-raising and expenditure. The depersonalized center of ancient Egypt was the sum of buildings and staff involved in maintaining the royal court.
Few locations are known for these, even at Amama, the best-preserved of the royal cities. The administrations did not form one complex at a single place of royal residence. The Old Egyptian term hnw "the residence" denoted a fixed location for the central offices of state, but it did not exist in every period. The Old Kingdom figures in later literary texts as the "period of the residence," but it is not known whether this was a single place or a new palace for each reign.
In the Middle Kingdom, there seems to have been no residence until Amenemhet I founded a fortified residence, called Itjtawyamenemhat "Amenemhat secures the Two Lands," abbreviated to Itjtawy probably near his pyramid at el-Lisht. In the New Kingdom, there again seems to be no residence in the eighteenth dynasty until Akhenaten founded his capital, Akhetaten, with nearby royal tomb, the southernmost point from which the Two Lands were governed.
In the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties, the residence was in the northeastern Delta at Piramesse; it was abandoned in favor of the still more northerly site of Tanis in the twenty-first dynasty. The next secure evidence for a residence comes in the late fourth century BCE, when Alexander the Great founded Alexandria, on the Mediterranean, at the westernmost edge of the Delta.
In the late Middle Kingdom, when official titles were most precise, and the residence at Itjtawy was still functioning, special phrases identify some high stewards and overseers of sealers as "following the king" or "who is in the palace. State Administration tectural or engineering division of the administration any more than there was a separate judiciary. The title syb is often translated "judge," but it seems to be a generic term for "official" when applied to a named individual, in contrast to the term 51', which is the generic term for "official" in the indefinite.
As coordinator of the administration, the vizier most often held the responsibility of "overseer of the six great mansions," a term that covered at the national level all centers of royal authority.
One Middle Kingdom security official, an "overseer of disputes" held the variant "overseer of the six mansions in Itjtawy," expressing from a different angle authority over places of judgment at the residence. The administration of justice formed an important aspect of all officialdom and land ownership; this is reflected in the literary Story of Khu-ninpu the "Eloquent Peasant" of Egyptological literary studies , where a traveler robbed on the land of a high steward petitions that high official directly at his town house.
Revenue collection may be divided into periodic and sporadic. Rent cannot be distinguished from taxation unless the property rights are known for the items collected. In most instances, underlying ownership is not recorded, and it is probably wiser to adopt the broad term "dues" in preference to the term "tax," which assumes specific relations between revenue collector and payer.
Similarly, in the delivery of foreign goods, the broad Egyptian term inw ought to be translated first as "deliveries," rather than as is often the case in modern histories as "tribute.
Even simple homes may have nonstaples. Ancient Egyptian economy and demography are little known, but it seems reasonable to assume majority dependence on local agriculture and animal husbandry, as opposed to hunting-gathering still an important element of early states or urban commerce. There is little if any evidence for centralized intervention in irrigation or animal and plant domestication. Irrigation networks in the Nile Valley depended on regional basins, not a national system of control.
Irrigation may have played a role in the consolidation of oligarchic power at some stage of the Predynastic, but there is no precise data for effective control of high and low annual Nile floods in relation to forming or maintaining the unified state.
Nearly all texts refer to centralized interest in produce rather than in the maintenance of lands, and land assessment by officials relates to harvest yield, not to irrigation repairs. One of the most explicit texts on irrigation works is the twelfth dynasty composition inscribed on tomb figurines called shawabtis the meaning is unknown. The oldest version orders the figure to substitute for the deceased in any of these four tasks in the afterlife: By the standards of modern state budgets, the requirements of the early state were minimal, with none of the vast industrialized enterprises of warfare and welfare.
Translations of ancient offices as "departments" of defense, trade, or agriculture constitute an anachronism that may distort a reconstruction of the revenueraising and -spending patterns of the early state. Even where the term hy "bureau" was used, it may refer physically to the reception rooms in the palatial home of the particular official.
Five great officials of state may be noted: After the vizier, who was key coordinator of the system, the treasurer seems to be the leading official of state.
His responsibility for revenue covers two areas, each governed by a separate national official. One bore the title "overseer of sealers" the men responsible for items of high value in small scale, requiring sealing , the other was "high steward" responsible for other commodities: The "overseer of fields" was another national official in the area of revenue, who was involved in calculating estate values.
The general literally "taskforce overseer" seems at the national level to cover security rather than building or quarrying; the latter, in particular, always included a military dimension, as an activity in wild terrain. Little is known of documentation and storage, which presumably formed the core duties of the royal documents scribe, another official at the highest level.
High status fell in the religious domain to the high priests of Heliopolis and Memphis later also of Thebes and to the chief lector-priest. Lectors literally "holders of the festival roll" would have been competent in reading hieroglyphs, since the festival rituals were written until the late Middle Kingdom in that sacred script rather than in ordinary longhand Hieratic. The chief lector presumably supervised the copying and composing of hieroglyphic texts for royal inscriptions in the domains of eternity: Inscriptions of Amenemhet III and Hat-shepsut record that chief lectors under divine inspiration provided the four sacred throne-names added at accession by the king to his birth-name.
The presence of chief lectors at the highest level emphasizes the importance of the religious dimension of the early state in Egypt. In managing royal concerns nationwide, holders of different titles might perform the same functions. This applies in particular to overseers of construction, quarrying, or mining, and to the judicial aspect of officialdom. In the Old Kingdom, the tasks of an "overseer of works" might fall to a vizier or a "chief of directors of craftsmen" the latter becoming the designation for the high priest of Ptah at Memphis.
There seems to have been no separate archi. The fourth implies royal expansion but not maintenance of irrigation, using conscripted labor. The existence of royal land would have given court officials specific interests throughout Egypt. The proportion of those to other lands is not known, and the relation of the Egyptian term pr nswt "royal domain" to other domains is problematic.
The twelfth dynasty inscription of Nebipusenusret assigns officials to "royal domain" or "temple," but that refers to function rather than to salary source. The scale of the surviving Old and Middle Kingdom temple architecture does not suggest an important role for it in the state economy, but the archaeological record may be misleading, since the national religious centers at Memphis and Heliopolis are little known.
From the New Kingdom, religious architecture is better preserved, and it apparently was conceived in different form, which included vast enclosures surrounded by massive walls. Temple enclosures seem the most secure nonmilitary structures in the New Kingdom and Late period landscape. In a nonmonetary but partly urbanized economy, grain is currency, and granaries are the principal banks. The regional temple granaries may form local points of royal power. New Kingdom temple economy may then be the result of a restructured state economy, under a complex system of resource management.
The relationship between royal domain and temple is additionally obscured because royal cult centers lay within temple domains.
The principal center of the royal cult, near the burial place of the king at Thebes, was "in the Amun domain. The longest Egyptian manuscript. The civil war at the end of the twentieth dynasty may have centered on control of the national bankthe granaries in the Amun domain at Thebes. The viceroy of Kush needed these to pay for his troops and seems to have wrested control by force from their usual state official, the high priest of Amun; in response, the Deltabased court of Ramesses XI had to enlist the help of Libyan settlers to restore order.
In these struggles, as in the general question about relations between separate "domains," using the European. State Administration 15 concepts of Clergy and State is inappropriate. Behind the Egyptian religious title of an estate, the economic and political structures emerge only in precise data on goods, their origins, and their destinations.
The Abusir Papyri from the Old Kingdom indicate a complex web of estates, passing "on paper" goods from one estate via others to a final destination. The royal court accounts in Papyrus Boulaq 18 from the early thirteenth dynasty present a similar banking system of dues from various departments and places.
The New Kingdom festival list of Ramesses III confirms the web of rights and obligations from which the accountant calculated the actual destination of a product. Egypt as a central state raised revenues in kind from the local areas, but the basis, frequency, and regularity of the collections are not known.
To raise revenues efficiently and fairly, the central administration required a national record of property; one part of that is preserved indirectly in hieroglyphic references to the "time of the count of cattle and people. Middle Kingdom official documents from Illahun recorded household populationsin one case a soldier with his family, in another a lector with a large household.
For accuracy in herd counts, a new census would fall every first, second, or third year after the preceding one not necessarily fixed as biennial, as is often stated. During the Old Kingdom, Egyptians used the count to calculate time in general, and the recurrent "year of count" became the term for consecutive "year of reign" by the First Intermediate Period.
The assessment of estates also depended on records of land ownership; indirect evidence for these survives in legal cases in which the parties resort to state records, most notably in the hieroglyphic inscription from the tomb-chapel of Mes, a Ramessid official.
Transfers of ownership underwent official approval in the bureau of the vizier as "deeds of conveyance" literally "house contents" , according to the Duties of the Vizier as preserved in eighteenth dynasty tomb-chapels and to earlier documents from Illahun late Middle Kingdom. The neartotal destruction of Egypt's state records obscures an implied gargantuan scale of assessment.
In periods of unity, Egypt occupied and administered neighboring lands. Excavations at Buhen in Lower Nubia revealed an Egyptian copper-working station of the Old Kingdom, established by the fourth dynasty; there is as yet little indication of the early military and administrative organization of such outposts. During the Middle Kingdom, at least one town on the eastern Mediterranean coast, Byblos, traded with Egypt to such an extent that its rulers occasionally used the Egyptian language and hieroglyphic script, with the self-description "mayor of Byblos"; however, there is no evidence for an Egyptian military settlement in the Near East or for separate ad-.
Provincial Administration tion of Near Eastern territories is attested in part from late eighteenth dynasty international diplomatic correspondence in cuneiform script Amarna tablets.
Egyptian "overseers of northern lands" administered three provinces, Canaan headquarters at Gaza , Upe headquarters at Kumidi, under the protection of the ruler of Damascus , and the northernmost province of Amurru headquarters at Simyra, under the protection of the ruler of Amurru.
As in Nubia, the military commanders bore the title "Head of Bowmen"; but the Egyptians did not establish temples in the Near East on the scale of the monuments in Nubia. Interests abroad lay in the security of Egypt's borders and the delivery of revenue. Security, revenue, and justice define the factors important to ancient Egyptian government. Therefore, the principal difference between foreign dominions and home territory lay in the responsibility of providing justice in personal, land, and property disputes.
Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology. Chicago, Essential guide lo the system of agriculture in the Nile Valley, showing gaps in our sources and disputing the theory that the early states arose from the need to coordinate irrigation systems. Janssen, Jac. Kemp, Barry J.
Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civiliwtion. London and New York, A wide-ranging introduction to Egypt over the Old to New Kingdoms, this is one of the only works to combine archaeological with textual evidence in the study of the Egyptian economy. Quirke, S. The Hieratic Documents. New Maiden, Discussion of Papyrus Boulaq 18 and other textual sources for reconstructing state administration at tliat period.
Strudwick, Nigel. The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom. Describes the history of principal titles across the Old Kingdom, drawing extensively on the hieroglyphic sources of the period.
Trigger, B. Kemp, D. O'Connor, and A. Ancient Egypt. Other relevant deities also show both Southern Roman times. Horus as a boy r. A crucial observ'ation is that Ombos, al- ious animals on cippi of Horus or apotropaic steiae of though in Upper Egypt, is north of Hierakonpolis and that "Horus-on-the-Crocodiles," which rvere the common the so-called Lower Egyptian Red Crown was first at- manifestation of the importance of Horus in healing rit- tested on a sherd from Naqada.
This suggests the possibil- ual and popular ritual practice. Horus the successor was ity that one source at least of the conflict is in the early also referred to as Iunmutef "Pillar of His Mother" , expansion of the proto-kingdom of Hierakonpolis and its which rvas used as a funerary priestly title often the de- absorption of the proto-kingdom of Naqada.
In the person of the Sphinx and ting the stage for the subsequent equilibrium. The nature elseu,here, Horus u,as identified in the Neu'Kingdom with of this conflict is not entirelv clear, but it was reflected in the Syrian-Canaanite deity Hauion an idendfication re- the following: Aside and Seth above the serekh srl-ti; palace-faEade design of from the sun disk already mentioned, Horus in various Khasekhemwy; and the indications of rvarfare, as well as forms often u'ore the Double Crown, as befitted his status some limited geographical ranges, for some rulers.
Dur- Eglpt; the atef brt a tlPe of cros'n , tiple atef, as kin-s of ing the Old Kingdom, the Horus-name was joined in the and disk rvith two plumes u'ere also used. Horuscycleinciudethefo]- Horrs are extremeiv rich, comprising hgnns' mofiuan' Stone now lou'ing: A dramatic account From the Ptolemaic temple of lvlyste'r: Edfu, ani horr the plar rras staged uncler the author's direction.
Contendings of Horus and Seth and perhaps, in allegorical Griffiths. Tlrc Cottflict ol-Horus and Seth. Liverpool, A other cippr,ts texts; and the Ptolemaic Myth of Horus at comprehensive but someu'hal ourdated discussion of the rivalry of these deities and its possible historical background. Edfu also known as the Tiiumph of Horus. These texts Hornung, Eik. Conceptions of God in Ancient Eg1'pt: The One and the take the reader or audience, with a number of variations Many.
Translated fuom Gerrnan by John Baines. Ithaca, First and contrasting perspectives, from the conception and published as Der Eine und die Vielen, Darrnstadt, A sensitive birth of Horus, through his childhood hidden in the and profound exploration, showing the necessitv of both "one" and "manv" in Egvptian ontologl' and proposing "man1-r'alued Iogic" as marshes, his protection by Isis, his conflict r.
The Kemp, Barn' J. Altcient Egl,pr: Anatomy of a Civili: A masterfui study of the workings and develop- reason for the production of the cippi of Horus and his ment of Eglptian societ: The blinding of one of Horus' eyes by Seth the rise of rhe state and the monarchy. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Berkeley; The most chronologically'and generi- for the popularity of the E1'e of Horus the wQjt or "whole cally inclusive antholog]'of ancient Egyptian texts in English, in- or sound [eye]" amulet and its significance in offerings cluding a number of imponant selections that penain lo Horus.
Daik Lilb ol'the Egrp' gies. The roles of Horus and Seth are interesting for folk- tian Gods. Translated lrom French by G. Goshgarian- Ithaca, loric analysis. Seth is often considered the "trickster" fig- Firsi published as Ln vie quotidienne des dieut dgyptiens, Paris, An ercelient complement to Hornung , expand- ure of ancient Eglptian religion, but it has been noted ing on the deities.
Mercer, Sarnuel A. GraFton, Nor Horrs r'r'as combined, s! Jansseni review in Bibliotheca Orientalis 3. An encl-clopedic treatment for Eg1'proiogists. The te Velde, Hei-man. Seth, God of Confusiott. Probleme de, Ag1'pro- deities of the canopic jars, protectors of the four internal logie, 6. Leiden, While focusing on Seth and his role' rhis organs removed during mummification, knorvn as work also sheds much light on Hor-us.