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Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Edition statement 6a arquitectura terra no ciclo do ouro, assistant adjutant-general, general a, smoking associated OP, major volunteers secretary war. Learn more about Amazon Prime. New York: International General. Foster, David William. Augusto Roa Bastos. New York: Twayne. Gollnick, Brian. Kane, Liam. London: Routledge. London and New York: Verso. Berlin: Langer. Bell, Albert H.
Le May, and Leonard Orr.
Ortiz, Fernando. Havana: J. Ortiz, Renato.
Rama, Angel. La ciudad letrada The Lettered City. Hanover, NH: Ediciones del Norte. Rowe, William, and Vivian Schelling. London: Verso. Schelling, Vivian. Schwarz, Roberto. Misplaced Ideas: Essays on Brazilian Culture. Torres, Carlos Alberto, and Julie Thompson. The transnational popularity of such contemporary performers as Ricky Martin and Shakira has prompted renewed interest in the sociocultural origins of their music, not least so that die-hard fans can learn more about the early careers of their idols.
Of all the musical forms associated with Latin America today, salsa is perhaps the most familiar to international listeners.
Currently, salsa crosses continental as well as Latin American boundaries. It is used in a variety of commercials and television soundtracks in the United States and the United Kingdom, and it has become a big hit in the unlikely form of the Orchesta de la Luz, a Japanese salsa band whose members do not speak Spanish, who sing the lyrics phonetically, and who have played to great acclaim both nationally and internationally.
The penetration of the international market by Latin American artists and musical genres is not, however, solely the consequence of globalization. Nor is it a recent phenomenon. Throughout the twentieth century a variety of styles made the journey from Latin America to the United States and Europe.
Miranda and other Latin American musicians performed stylized versions of the music of their homelands for a cosmopolitan audience. Since then the ever-increasing dominance of transnational corporations within the record industry has intensified the global reach of Latin American rhythms.
Within the United States the prodigious late twentieth-century growth of the Latino population, with its demand for cultural self-representation, has provided a vast market for music and musicians of Latin American origin. Within Latin America, musical styles move relatively unhindered across geographical borders, increasingly forming creative unions with new trends from abroad such as hip-hop and rap music.
On a continent where song has often represented the primary vehicle for self-expression and even political dissent, popular music continues to innovate and stimulate. Salsa drew from a variety of other musical styles, principally from jazz and Cuban son. The style spread rapidly and became popular across the whole of Latin America, especially in Venezuela, Panama, and Colombia. Fania used the term as a catchall expression for the various Latino singers and groups on its books.
Salsa emerged as a counterpart to jazz. It is an eclectic blend, in which the tumbadora, timbal, and bongo give the percussion section a Cuban flavor, and the brass section, heavy on the trumpets and trombones, shows clear influences of U. Thus, although some Cubans argue that salsa is merely a modern version of son, it in fact drew from a whole series of rhythms and is more an amalgam of styles than one particular style.
Juan Carlos Quintero Herencia notes that salsa composers draw upon a variety of different types of music, including the cumbia, samba, bolero, and cha-cha-cha. Fruko, who had originally made his name with cumbia, performed in the s with his group Los Tesos, described by some as the first real Colombian salsa group.
This Really Is Salsa! At the same time, another key figure was emerging in Colombian salsa. Joe Arroyo, who began his career with the Discos Fuentes record label, started to develop his own original style of salsa. Arroyo started out with Fruko but formed his own band in , La Verdad, and then went on to record under his own name. Arroyo is still very much a force today, and his prominence is further confirmed by his high profile in the media, illustrated by the use of one of his songs as the theme song of the popular — Colombian telenovela, Siete veces amada Seven Times Beloved.
This reworking is best illustrated by their CD Como en un baile Like at a Dance , in which musical forms such as cumbia, vallenato, currulao, and paso doble, among others, are given a salsa-esque reworking. Boggs, Vernon. New York: Excelsior Music Publishing. Calvo Ospina, Hernando. Havana Heat: Bronx Beat. London: Latin America Bureau.
Duany, J. Lemarie, Isabelle. London: Continuum. Quintero Herencia, Juan Carlos. Waxer, Lise. Tango The musical style tango and its accompanying dance emerged among the urban poor of Buenos Aires in the s and enjoyed their heyday between and , when they captured the imaginations of Europeans and North Americans and subsequently gained respectability and acceptance among the Argentine elite. The most renowned singer of tango from this golden age was Carlos Gardel — , who took the tango to Paris and New York and who still enjoys mythical status inside and outside Argentina.
Since then, tango nuevo new tango has been closely associated with the name of Astor Piazzolla — , who incorporated elements of jazz and classical music into the genre. The population of Buenos Aires ballooned from , in to a million in because of internal migration from rural areas and large-scale immigration from Europe, particularly Italy.
Among these lunfardo speakers was born a musical dance style that brought together an eclectic mix of traditions of music and movement. Tango was originally played on a guitar, but between and musicians began to perform it on the bandoneon, a type of accordion, which was more suited to the larger venues that by now were also presenting tango performances.
The lyrics of these songs were initially a vehicle for denouncing the living conditions of the urban poor, but as the music and its creators migrated toward the city center these social themes were replaced by a more personal, emotional content.
Thus, from to the lyrics of tango became more important, not least since they began to be recorded on gramophone records.
They focused on loneliness, betrayal, and unrequited love as experienced by the male protagonist, who is always the victim within a failed love affair.
Female singers rarely performed tangos, and when they did sing professionally they rarely made their reputations in cabaret clubs, unlike their male counterparts. The macho, aggressive compadrito character, the peasant newly arrived in the city, who has much in common with the mythical malandro of Brazilian samba the Brazilian equivalent of the zootsuiter , disappeared from tango lyrics in this era, as did the references to prostitutes and violence.
With the untimely death of Carlos Gardel, tango entered a brief period of decline, largely due to the influx of foreign rhythms, such as the rumba and bolero. As was the case with samba in Brazil, the new media, chiefly the radio and the talking cinema in Argentina, brought tango into mass culture. It was marginalized by the military junta between and but subsequently reemerged with renewed vigor both within Argentina and abroad.
He drew on his varied musical background to revolutionize tango, bringing symphony orchestras and the traditional bandoneon together in a highly controversial move. His international fame and popularity peaked in the s, when he performed his avant-garde tango all over the world.
Today tango clubs, or milongas, are thriving in both Buenos Aires and the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, and the music continues to inspire contemporary artists, such as the transnational pop icon Shakira. Collier, Simon. Guy, Donna J. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. Washabaugh, William, ed. Oxford and New York: Berg. Subsequently, thanks to the development of the radio and record industry in the s and s, samba was popularized among the white middle classes.
Samba went on to influence the bossa nova movement and the work of singer-songwriters such as Chico Buarque de Holanda in the late s and beyond. Since then, many different varieties of samba have emerged, such as samba-deenredo theme-samba , which is played by the escolas de samba samba schools, the large neighborhood organizations that perform in the Rio Carnival and whose lyrics are based on the theme chosen for the celebrations in a given year.
By the beginning of the nineteenth century, although slaves continued to participate in the batuque, free blacks developed a musical accompaniment to the dance played on the viola, a type of Portuguese guitar. Some experts argue that the true musical forefather of samba was the lundu, a music and dance form performed by slaves in the eighteenth century that had a religious significance and that was performed to bring good luck.
With the abolition of slavery in , many former slaves and their offspring settled in Rio de Janeiro, then the capital, and by the second decade of the twentieth century an AfroBrazilian community existed near the port and the city center.
Her home was a meeting place for a heterogeneous group of popular musicians and enthusiasts, both black and white, some semiliterate, others well educated, who brought together a wide range of musical styles, both homegrown and imported.
The song was credited to the AfroBrazilian Ernesto dos Santos, better known by his nickname, Donga, but in all likelihood it was a collective creation. The lyrics of the percussion-based samba-de-morro shantytown samba that they created centered on their marginal lifestyle and celebrated the local antihero, or malandro, who turned his back on manual labor—still closely linked to the exploitation of slavery—in favor of a lifestyle of womanizing, gambling, and carousing.
Barroso was one of a group of white sambistas who emerged in the late s and s, together with the acclaimed lyricist Noel Rosa — , whose careers were fueled by the development of the gramophone record, the radio, and the talking cinema.
This variety of samba popularized the genre among the middle class and dominated Brazilian music until the advent of bossa nova in the late s. Samba, specifically samba-de-enredo, is the music that accompanies the Rio Carnival processions today.
High-register plaintive harmonies are added by the cavaquinho a kind of ukulele , and the puxador lead singer provides the melody. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Shaw, Lisa. The Social History of the Brazilian Samba. Vianna, Hermano. Bossa Nova Bossa nova, an internationally acclaimed Brazilian musical style, emerged in the mids in the upscale district of Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro.
Bossa nova took much of its inspiration from samba, but some examples of the genre also show influences from North American jazz. This new sound was taken far beyond the boundaries of the city of Rio thanks to multinational record companies and television, and it was particularly popular in the United States as a consequence of collaborations between Brazilian musicians and such musicians as the North American saxophonist Stan Getz, the jazz musician Charlie Byrd, and singer Frank Sinatra.
This was the first large-scale global exposure for Brazilian music. The lyrics of bossa nova clearly reflect the spirit of these times. Similarly, two other well-known examples of bossa nova center on clever interplays of lyrics and melody.
However, in Brazil bossa nova has not suffered the same fate, and it continues to be closely associated with a minimalist vocal delivery, usually by a solo voice, delicately accompanied by a simple guitar or piano and light percussion.
Bossa nova enjoyed its heyday between and , but this musical style had a profound impact on jazz and international music, and it also influenced the subsequent generation of Brazilian songwriters. Chicago: A Cappella. McGowan, Chris, and Ricardo Pessanha.
Treece, David. Its popularity was due to its prominent use in the movies of the golden age of Mexican filmmaking. Scholars do not agree on the exact origins of mariachi music or of its name. None of the theories is completely convincing.
Mariachi music is based on the Mexican son, a musical form born of the fusion of Spanish, indigenous Mesoamerican, and to a lesser extent African cultures in the eighteenth century. Note that the Mexican son is not the same as the Cuban son, although they have similar origins. Mariachi music originated in the state of Jalisco, but it became popular throughout Mexico in the first half of the nineteenth century because its hybrid origins helped give different social groups a sense of belonging to a fledgling national community.
The themes of the songs are extremely varied, ranging from love and betrayal to politics, revolutionary heroes, and even nonsense verse. These guitars gave the music its traditional sound. In more recent years, owing to the popularity of jazz and Cuban music, the harp has been abandoned and trumpets have been added. The style of delivery is also important: the songs are sung with a nasal voice and in a dispassionate manner.
Finally, all mariachi band members wear charro clothing the dress of the Mexican cowboy : ankle boots, a wide-brimmed sombrero, tight pants with lots of shiny buttons down the sides, and a fitted, decorated jacket. In general, mariachi bands were exclusively male. All-women bands have been more prevalent in the southwestern United States, where there have been several since the s.
Mexican superstar, heartthrob, and transnational pop icon Juan Gabriel has also helped revitalize the tradition, both in Mexico and abroad, by blending mariachi music with soft rock and symphony orchestras. The style of delivery tends to be much more melodramatic than that of traditional mariachi music, and the repertoire is almost exclusively made up of boleros.
These were epic ballads from northern Mexico that usually recounted stories of conflict between Mexicans and Anglos and that were hence important in the creation of a sense of popular Mexican national identity through resistance to Anglo imperialism.
The corridos had their heyday in the s, when they were reinvested with meaning by the events of the Mexican Revolution — Its popularity is still due to the theme of resistance of el pueblo the common people in the lyrics.