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These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars rebar and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed in tension , so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. Suggestion to Viewers: The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks.
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Trending Today. Load more. Distribution of concrete in spite of reinforcement strength characteristics along the cross-section of vertical reinforced concrete elements is inhomogeneous. Maintaining composite action requires transfer of load between the concrete and steel.
The direct stress is transferred from the concrete to the bar interface so as to change the tensile stress in the reinforcing bar along its length. This load transfer is achieved by means of bond anchorage and is idealized as a continuous stress field that develops in the vicinity of the steel-concrete interface. Anchorage bond in concrete: Codes of specifications[ edit ] Because the actual bond stress varies along the length of a bar anchored in a zone of tension, current international codes of specifications use the concept of development length rather than bond stress.
The main requirement for safety against bond failure is to provide a sufficient extension of the length of the bar beyond the point where the steel is required to develop its yield stress and this length must be at least equal to its development length. However, if the actual available length is inadequate for full development, special anchorages must be provided, such as cogs or hooks or mechanical end plates. The same concept applies to lap splice length mentioned in the codes where splices overlapping provided between two adjacent bars in order to maintain the required continuity of stress in the splice zone.
Good design and a well-chosen concrete mix will provide additional protection for many applications.
It can be identified by the unique ASTM specified mill marking on its smooth, dark charcoal finish. Epoxy coated rebar can easily be identified by the light green colour of its epoxy coating. Hot dip galvanized rebar may be bright or dull grey depending on length of exposure, and stainless rebar exhibits a typical white metallic sheen that is readily distinguishable from carbon steel reinforcing bar.
Another, cheaper way of protecting rebars is coating them with zinc phosphate. Penetrating sealants typically must be applied some time after curing. Sealants include paint, plastic foams, films and aluminum foil , felts or fabric mats sealed with tar, and layers of bentonite clay, sometimes used to seal roadbeds. Corrosion inhibitors , such as calcium nitrite [Ca NO2 2], can also be added to the water mix before pouring concrete.
This causes the passivation of steel at the anodic oxidation sites. Nitrite is a much more active corrosion inhibitor than nitrate , which is a less powerful oxidizer of the divalent iron. Reinforcement and terminology of beams[ edit ] Two intersecting beams integral to parking garage slab that will contain both reinforcing steel and the wiring, junction boxes and other electrical components necessary to install the overhead lighting for the garage level beneath it.
A beam bends under bending moment , resulting in a small curvature. At the outer face tensile face of the curvature the concrete experiences tensile stress, while at the inner face compressive face it experiences compressive stress. A singly reinforced beam is one in which the concrete element is only reinforced near the tensile face and the reinforcement, called tension steel, is designed to resist the tension. A doubly reinforced beam is one in which besides the tensile reinforcement the concrete element is also reinforced near the compressive face to help the concrete resist compression.
The latter reinforcement is called compression steel. When the compression zone of a concrete is inadequate to resist the compressive moment positive moment , extra reinforcement has to be provided if the architect limits the dimensions of the section. An under-reinforced beam is one in which the tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is smaller than the combined compression capacity of the concrete and the compression steel under-reinforced at tensile face.
When the reinforced concrete element is subject to increasing bending moment, the tension steel yields while the concrete does not reach its ultimate failure condition. As the tension steel yields and stretches, an "under-reinforced" concrete also yields in a ductile manner, exhibiting a large deformation and warning before its ultimate failure.
In this case the yield stress of the steel governs the design. An over-reinforced beam is one in which the tension capacity of the tension steel is greater than the combined compression capacity of the concrete and the compression steel over-reinforced at tensile face.
So the "over-reinforced concrete" beam fails by crushing of the compressive-zone concrete and before the tension zone steel yields, which does not provide any warning before failure as the failure is instantaneous.
A balanced-reinforced beam is one in which both the compressive and tensile zones reach yielding at the same imposed load on the beam, and the concrete will crush and the tensile steel will yield at the same time. This design criterion is however as risky as over-reinforced concrete, because failure is sudden as the concrete crushes at the same time of the tensile steel yields, which gives a very little warning of distress in tension failure.
The design strength or nominal strength is the strength of a material, including a material-safety factor.
The value of the safety factor generally ranges from 0. The ultimate limit state is the theoretical failure point with a certain probability. It is stated under factored loads and factored resistances. Reinforced concrete structures are normally designed according to rules and regulations or recommendation of a code such as ACI, CEB, Eurocode 2 or the like. Analysis and design of RC members can be carried out by using linear or non-linear approaches.
When applying safety factors, building codes normally propose linear approaches, but for some cases non-linear approaches. To see the examples of a non-linear numerical simulation and calculation visit the references:   Main article: Prestressed concrete Prestressing concrete is a technique that greatly increases the load-bearing strength of concrete beams. The reinforcing steel in the bottom part of the beam, which will be subjected to tensile forces when in service, is placed in tension before the concrete is poured around it.
Once the concrete has hardened, the tension on the reinforcing steel is released, placing a built-in compressive force on the concrete. When loads are applied, the reinforcing steel takes on more stress and the compressive force in the concrete is reduced, but does not become a tensile force. Since the concrete is always under compression, it is less subject to cracking and failure. Common failure modes of steel reinforced concrete[ edit ] Reinforced concrete can fail due to inadequate strength, leading to mechanical failure, or due to a reduction in its durability.
When rebar corrodes, the oxidation products rust expand and tends to flake, cracking the concrete and unbonding the rebar from the concrete. Typical mechanisms leading to durability problems are discussed below.
Mechanical failure[ edit ] Cracking of the concrete section is nearly impossible to prevent; however, the size and location of cracks can be limited and controlled by appropriate reinforcement, control joints, curing methodology and concrete mix design.
Cracking can allow moisture to penetrate and corrode the reinforcement. This is a serviceability failure in limit state design. Cracking is normally the result of an inadequate quantity of rebar, or rebar spaced at too great a distance.
The concrete then cracks either under excess loading, or due to internal effects such as early thermal shrinkage while it cures. Ultimate failure leading to collapse can be caused by crushing the concrete, which occurs when compressive stresses exceed its strength, by yielding or failure of the rebar when bending or shear stresses exceed the strength of the reinforcement, or by bond failure between the concrete and the rebar.
Rust has a lower density than metal, so it expands as it forms, cracking the decorative cladding off the wall as well as damaging the structural concrete. The breakage of material from a surface is called spalling. Detailed view of spalling probably caused by a too thin layer of concrete between the steel and the surface, accompanied by corrosion from external exposure.
Main article: carbonation Carbonation, or neutralisation, is a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide in the air and calcium hydroxide and hydrated calcium silicate in the concrete.
When a concrete structure is designed, it is usual to specify the concrete cover for the rebar the depth of the rebar within the object. The minimum concrete cover is normally regulated by design or building codes. If the reinforcement is too close to the surface, early failure due to corrosion may occur. The concrete cover depth can be measured with a cover meter.
However, carbonated concrete incurs a durability problem only when there is also sufficient moisture and oxygen to cause electropotential corrosion of the reinforcing steel.