Medical optical systems, endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, surgical microscopes. Optic design. Gross. Aberration correction, system. Optical system imagery can readily be calculated using the Gaussian cardinal points or by paraxial ray tracing. These principles are extended to the layout and . Optical Engineering. The Design of Optical Systems. Warren J. Smith. Chief Scientist, Kaiser Electro-Optics Inc. Carisbad, California and Consultant in Optics .
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PDF | Optical design is a convenient phrase that covers the whole range of activities required for the creation of an optical system. Optical. PDF | This textbook is devoted to the fundamentals of optical system design and analysis. It is part of series on applied optics covering the math. Optical System. Design. Robert E. Fischer. CEO, OPTICS 1, Incorporated. Biljana Tadic-Galeb. Panavision. Paul R. Yoder. Consultant. With contributions by.
Basics approaches Dispersion, anormal dispersion, glass map, liquids and plastics, lenses, mirrors, 2 Materials and Components aspheres, diffractive elements Paraxial approximation, basic notations, imaging equation, multi-component 3 Paraxial Optics systems, matrix calculation, Lagrange invariant, phase space visualization Pupil, ray sets and sampling, aperture and vignetting, telecentricity, symmetry, 4 Optical Systems photometry Longitudinal and transverse aberrations, spot diagram, polynomial expansion, 5 Geometrical Aberrations primary aberrations, chromatical aberrations, Seidels surface contributions Fermat principle and Eikonal, wave aberrations, expansion and higher orders, 6 Wave Aberrations Zernike polynomials, measurement of system quality Diffraction, point spread function, PSF with aberrations, optical transfer function, 7
Objective 4. Turnable prism 1. Technical or medical objective 1. Wrms [l] 0. Full field 2.
Scanning 3. Field of view F' 2. Pupil diameter field f2 lens 3. Illumination objective 2. Related Papers.
Handbook of Optical Design Second Edition. By Kingsley Gomes. Methods of experimental physics 25 Daniel Malacara Eds. Geometrical and Instrumental Optics Academic Press By Miguel Ramos Castro.
Comparison of low-cost hyperspectral sensors. By John Antoniades. Generation of third-order spherical and coma aberrations by use of radially symmetrical fourth-order lenses.
System design considerations to improve isoplanatism for adaptive optics retinal imaging. By Andrew Metha. Realy systems 5. Miscellaneous 6.
Photographic lenses 7. Scan lenses 8. Lithographic lenses 9. Telescopes Two thin lenses close together with different materials 2. One positive and one negative lens necessary 2. Large n-difference relaxes the bendings 4. Achromatic correction indipendent from bending 5. Bending corrects spherical aberration at the margin 6. Aplanatic coma correction for special glass choices 7. Wave Aberrations 4. Special Optical Surfaces and Components 5. Design Examples 6. Thermal Effects 7.
Optical Coatings 8. Image Evaluation 9. Diamond Turning To that end, the subject of beam expanders was modified, and achromats have been covered in more detail. In a chapter on Special Optical Surfaces and Components, the ball lens, gradient optics, and three-mirror configurations have been added. In Wave Aberrations, besides the concept, comparison of spherical aberration with the Seidel coefficient is discussed. The chapter Thermal Effects deals with methods of designing athermats, lenses that compensate for the undesired results caused by temperature excursions.
The chapter Design Example is an application-based summary of the subjects covered in the earlier chapters of the book. Because diamond turning is especially suitable for producing aspheres and diffractive infrared elements, a chapter has been added to describe this manufacturing method. To follow the style of the first edition, the added material contains practical approaches with approximations and many numerical examples. I also thank my friend and colleague Robert E.
Fischer for reviewing this second edition. His suggestions have been most valuable. Max J.
It is written for systems engineers whose expertise is outside the field of optics. The material presented can be applied directly to the initial optical system layout phase to evaluate trade-offs of various configurations. It will also be very helpful in conveying requirements and expectations to an experienced lens designer. Over the past decades, much emphasis has been placed on the use of computers in lens design. Powerful programs developed for the lens designer have made it possible to explore new and different approaches for fording better solutions to optical design challenges.
Unfortunately, the process of using computers to perform the required calculations is often referred to as automatic lens design.
But to obtain a sensible optical system, one that is practical to manufacture and meets cost-related and other special demands, the starting configuration must have a chance to meet those demands. Therefore, it is important to start in the right neighborhood. To identify this neighborhood—a promising starting point—is one of the goals of this tutorial text. Designing lenses for the infrared region is in some ways easier than working in the visible spectrum, since the wavelengths are longer, the index of refraction of most lens materials is higher, and their relative dispersion is lower.
This generally results in smaller primary aberrations. Third-order aberration calculations are often sufficient to predict meaningful performance expectations even if the system is simplified to a set of thin lenses. The fact that the diffraction limit is 10 to 20 times larger in the infrared than in the visible region adds to the usefulness of applying thirdorder aberration theory.
Most of the materials used for infrared lenses and mirrors lend themselves to singlepoint diamond turning. For that reason, aspheric and diffractive surfaces are routinely employed since they are no more difficult to generate by this method than spherical surfaces and offer to the correction of aberrations.
Aspheric and diffractive surfaces are discussed in detail and are also treated in several numerical examples.