Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education. The human needs on medicinal plants are discussed. Drug therapy and drug. tion about medicinal plants and their uses and are not intended as a there have been books on medicinal plants published locally, none can. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan and others published Medicinal Plants (Importance and Uses).
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WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. 4. 1. Plants, Medicinal. 2. Angiosperms. 3. Medicine, Traditional. I. WHO Consultation on Selected. SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS. OF CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS. Research and Compilation. Mohammad Abdul Motaleb. Editors. Mohammed Kamal. arguments. Please cite this paper as: Jamshidi-Kia F, Lorigooini Z, Amini-Khoei H . Medicinal plants: past history and future perspective. J Herbmed Pharmacol.
Last Update April The Philippine medicinal plant entrees now number about There are three separate listing of medicinal plants: a Tagalog list, an English list for those plants with English designations, and a Chinese list, for the medicinal plants with Chinese names. English names are included in the Tagalog lists for plants that have not acquired local names. The red- and bold-fonted names are the original ten medicinal plants promoted by the Department of Health. For quite a number of plants, there may be a confusing similarity in common names shared by plants of different species, or different names for the same plant in the same region or tribe, or confusing variations in the common names of the same specie of plant. See: Plant Names Of interesting note, is the variety and seemingly amusing origins of the common names, which in itself presents as an interesting etymological study. Frequent updates are done for photos, folkloric info, research studies and addition of new plants.
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The study revealed that medicinal plant knowledge transfer to the young generation is affected by modernization. This might be related to the diminishing of interest of the young generation on indigenous knowledge.
Similar result was reported by [ 20 ] where young people showed disinterest on traditional medicinal plants. Ranking of Medicinal Plants Preference ranking of 5 medicinal plants that were reported as effective for treating stomachache was conducted after selecting ten key participants. Stomachache is the mostly occurring disease treated by more medicinal plants. The participants were asked to compare the given medicinal plants based on their efficacy.
The results showed that Stephania abyssinica scored the highest mark and ranked first indicating that it was the most effective in treating stomachache and followed by Solanum incanum Table 2. Table 2: Preference ranking of medicinal plants used for treating stomachache. For medicinal plants that were identified by the participants to be used in treating wounds, a paired comparison was made among six of them using ten participants to know their rank.
Wound is frequently occurring external health problem in the study area. The results that were obtained from all the participants were summed up and compared plants were abbreviated in the table. Accordingly, Olea europaea subsp. The frequency of wound to be treated by more medicinal plants was also reported by [ 38 ] in other parts of Bale region. Nine medicinal plants were documented for wound treatment. Table 3: Paired comparison of medicinal plants used to treat wound As: Acacia senegal, C.
In the study area, a number of medicinal plants were found to be multipurpose species being utilized for a variety of uses. Direct matrix ranking showed that of the total medicinal plants Croton macrostachyus is the most multipurpose use medicinal plant followed by Warburgia ugandensis Table 5.
Informant Consensus Factor ICF The diseases of the study area have been grouped into various categories based on the site of occurrence of the disease, condition of the disease, and treatment resemblance of the disease to the local people.
The informant consensus factors have been calculated for each category Table 4. The highest ICF 0. Table 4: Informant consensus factor by categories of diseases in the study area. Table 5: Direct matrix ranking of six plant species by four participants based on six use criteria. Threat and Conservation of Medicinal Plants of Study Area Medicinal plants are at increasing risk from destruction of their habitats agricultural expansion, fire, construction, overgrazing, and urbanization and over harvesting of known medicinal species [ 40 ].
According to [ 41 ] about 15, medicinal plant species may be threatened with extinction world widely due to habitat loss and over harvesting and it is estimated that the earth is losing one potential major drug every two years. In the study area, the people also rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as charcoal, medicine, firewood, construction, and food.
The result of [ 42 ] indicated that intense deforestation became the major threat to medicinal plants in Zay people. Overgrazing reported to be the major threat to medicinal plants in Gozamin Woreda of East Gojjam [ 43 ].
This indicates that due consideration should be given for conservation of these plants since they are being widely exploited for purposes other than their medicinal value. Availability of medicinal plants has been affected by a dramatic decrease in the area of native vegetation due to agricultural expansion, deforestation, fire, overgrazing, and charcoal and firewood [ 40 , 42 ]. The influences of human on the natural habitat of medicinal plants are the problems for the conservation of medicinal plants and associated knowledge.
The effort to conserve medicinal plants in the district was observed to be very poor. Some participants have started to conserve medicinal plants by cultivating at home gardens, though the effort was minimal. About The result of [ 32 ] indicated that only 5. Suggestion given by [ 44 ] stated that natural resources could be utilized best in sustainable way if management practices are complete.
In fact, such valuable activities require appropriate action, and changes by the full range of societies and stakeholders involved in the conservation, production, and management as well as use of medicinal plants. Since an action on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants need involvement of various sectors and greater public support, it needs a continuous task of creating public awareness [ 45 ].
The review made by Megersa et al. Conclusions A study on medicinal plant utilization in area revealed that the communities commonly use medicinal plants for maintaining their primary healthcare.
The study resulted in documenting 70 medicinal plants species where Euphorbiaceae is the leading family with the highest proportion of medicinal plants. Most of 58 medicinal plants in the study area were harvested from wild. Shrubs were found to be the dominant growth form of medicinal plants used for preparation traditional remedies and followed by herbs. Roots were found to be the most frequently used plant parts for the preparation of traditional remedies. Traditional medicine preparation mostly involves a single plant and the method of preparation was mainly crushing followed by pounding.
Depletion of indigenous knowledge among the people of the study area was serious due to disinterest of young generation to gain the knowledge. Oral based knowledge transfer, unavailability of the species, and influence of modern education were considered as the main factors.
The main threat on medicinal plants in the study area arises from agricultural expansion. Utilization of root plant parts for traditional medicine preparation could also be considered as a threat.
Although Berbere district was found to be rich in medicinal plant diversity, the effort to conserve the plants and associated indigenous knowledge was observed to be very poor. Thus, conservation of medicinal plants by local communities and responsible bodies is vital to avoid further loss. Moreover, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation is recommended with due consideration to frequently used medicinal plants. Data Availability The data used in this study is available from the corresponding author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge Jimma University for financial support. All members of National Herbarium of Addis Ababa University also deserve appreciation for their help rendered during the identification of plants.
They are also grateful to the local people of Berbere district for their hospitality and kind response to the enquiries on information about the medicinal plants. Park, H. Lee, B. Shin et al. View at Google Scholar K. Kassaye, A. Amberbir, B. Getachew, and Y. Martin, Ethnobotany: A Method Manual. Alexiades and J. Sheldon, Eds. View at Google Scholar C. Heinrich, A. Ankli, B.
Frei, C. Weimann, and O. Lulekal, E. Kelbessa, T. Bekele, and H. Hunde, Z. Asfaw, and E. View at Google Scholar R. Regassa, T. Bekele, and M. View at Google Scholar M. Adefa and B. View at Google Scholar H. The ancient scholars only believed that herbs are only solutions to cure a number of health related problems and diseases. They conducted thorough study about the same, experimented to arrive at accurate conclusions about the efficacy of different herbs that have medicinal value.
Most of the drugs, thus formulated, are free of side effects or reactions. This is the reason why herbal treatment is growing in popularity across the globe. These herbs that have medicinal quality provide rational means for the treatment of many internal diseases, which are otherwise considered difficult to cure.
These are considered as home remedies in many parts of the country. It is known fact that lots of consumers are using Basil Tulsi for making medicines, black tea, in pooja and other activities in their day to day life. In several parts of the world many herbs are used to honour their kings showing it as a symbol of luck.
Now, after finding the role of herbs in medicine, lots of consumers started the plantation of tulsi and other medicinal plants in their home gardens.
Medicinal plants are considered as a rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development either pharmacopoeial, non- pharmacopoeial or synthetic drugs.
A part from that, these plants play a critical role in the development of human cultures around the whole world. Moreover, some plants are considered as important source of nutrition and as a result of that they are recommended for their therapeutic values. Some of these plants include ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric etc. Some plants and their derivatives are considered as important source for active ingredients which are used in aspirin and toothpaste etc.
Apart from the medicinal uses, herbs are also used in natural dye, pest control, food, perfume, tea and so on. Now a days medicinal herbs are important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Recipes for the treatment of common ailments such as diarrhoea, constipation, hypertension, low sperm count, dysentery and weak penile erection, piles, coated tongue, menstrual disorders, bronchial asthma, leucorrhoea and fevers are given by the traditional medicine practitioners very effectively. Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field.
Importance of some herbs with their medicinal values Herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, myrrh, aloe, sandalwood, ginseng, red clover, burdock, bayberry, and safflower are used to heal wounds, sores and boils. These herbs are easy to grow, look good, taste and smell amazing and many of them are magnets for bees and butterflies. Many herbs are used as blood purifiers to alter or change a long-standing condition by eliminating the metabolic toxins.
These are also known as 'blood cleansers'. Certain herbs improve the immunity of the person, thereby reducing conditions such as fever. Some herbs are also having antibiotic properties.
Turmeric is useful in inhibiting the growth of germs, harmful microbes and bacteria. Turmeric is widely used as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds. To reduce fever and the production of heat caused by the condition, certain antipyretic herbs such as Chirayta, black pepper, sandal wood and safflower are recommended by traditional Indian medicine practitioners.