Manual of tropical housing and building: climatic by O H Koenigshberger · Manual of tropical housing and building: climatic design. by O H Koenigshberger. Manual of tropical housing and building / O.H. Koenigsberger [et al.] Koenigsberger, O. H. (Otto H.), [and others]. Part 1., Climatic design. [Harlow]: Longman. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Climatic Design . Paix: The design of buildings for daylighting Commonwealth Exp. The first draft of the Manual served to structure their discussions and was gradually developed and changed in Yet the most pressing housing needs of the tropics are urban.
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AFTER a sporadic start in the early nineteen-fifties, books in English on the design of buildings in relation to climate appeared at a rate which reached. MANUAL OF TROPICAL HOUSING AND BUILDING For our entire .. composite climates Shelter for tropical upland climates 8 Design aids. by O H Koenigsberger, T G Ingersoll, Alan Mayhew. Designed as a textbook for students of architecture, housing, environmental design and climate control in tropical countries, this book deals with the theory of climatic design and shows how practical solutions are derived from.
The designer is interested specifically in those aspects of climate which affect human comfort and the use of buildings. They include averages, changes and extremes of temperature, the temperature differences between day and night diurnal range , humidity, sky conditions, incoming and outgoing radiation, rainfall and its distribution, air movements and special features, such as trade-winds, thunder-storms, dust-storms and hurricanes. Climatic records as gathered at airports and meteorological stations are not primarily intended for the use of designers. Publications frequently omit some of the aspects that interest the designer. It is often necessary to supplement such information with unpublished data obtained directly from meteorological stations.
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Growing family or tribal units can be accommodated easily by the addition of huts, stores and enclosures as the need arises. Waste disposal and health problems are solved, or at least mitigated, by dispersal. There are a few exceptions. In the Nile Valley, in the hinterland of Peshawar, and in parts of Bengal and southern China, for instance, land is so fertile and so much in demand that villagers have to be as careful in its use as townsfolk.
Yet in most rural communities, the land needs for housing are negligeable compared to those of agriculture. The traditional building forms of the rural tropics often include sound solutions of climatic problems.
Given technological limitations and the always overriding considerations of safety, some of these solutions must be considered ingenious, and there can be no doubt that they deserve careful study. Yet the most pressing housing needs of the tropics are urban, and traditional forms because of their origin in the life and economy of rural societies are seldom suited to urban conditions.
This is demonstrated convincingly by going through the above-described features of rural life and noting how few of them apply in towns and cities. Building materials for city needs cannot be taken from the surrounding countryside without, in the case of organic materials, denuding it of vegetation or, in the case of earth building, making borrow pits of dangerous dimensions.
Building materials that have to be brought in over large distances cease to be cheap. The rhythm of city life does not include time for house building, least of all for the poorest, the unemployed, the casual or unskilled labourer who has to fight hard to stay alive and who cannot afford to miss a chance of finding a foothold in the urban economy.
Even time for maintenance work becomes scarce and the townsman soon learns to value durable materials and methods that do not need frequent attention. He receives money for his labour and is His family, like that of the villager, spends a good part of the day in the open, but space for outdoor living is not as plentiful and suitable. Safe storage of possessions is even more important than in the open country. So is privacy, but both are more difficult to achieve. Yet it is space, a commodity so plentiful and so little valued in rural life, that becomes a major concern for the town-dweller.
It is not a matter of the total amount of land available - although that too can be a problem in certain urban areas - but rather a question of location. Because he wants to be near to, work, schools and shops, the townsman must be content with a small piece of ground and adjust his life style, household size and building methods to proximity with others.
Proximity makes major issues out of problems that the villager can afford to neglect. Fire hazards, waste disposal, sanitation, and noise pollution are typical urban problems that cannot be solved by going back to essentially rural traditions. They cannot be solved either by the adoption of Western technology and Western patterns that have their origin in different climates, different cultures and different economic conditions.
It seems so obvious that house types and building materials from cold climates cannot solve the problems of cities where heat is the dominant problem and that solutions from communities with average per capita incomes of S7 per annum cannot work in communities where the income is less than S Yet the cities of the tropics are full of galvanised iron roofs, plate glass windows and buildings that could just as well stand in Manchester, Detroit or Montreal.
The resulting urban environment is climatically and socially inadequate. A wealthy elite can escape the consequences of poor design through mechanical air- conditioning. The others suffer from living conditions that permit neither efficient work nor rest or enjoyment. It is the purpose of this manual to demonstrate that this need not be so, that it is possible to create cities that have pleasant indoor and outdoor living spaces and are suited to the social conditions of their inhabitants.
Section 1 Climate: A somewhat more scientific definition is: Before tropical climates can be examined in detail, we must survey the factors shaping the climates, on a global scale.
The earth receives almost all its energy from the sun in the form of radiation, thus the sun is the dominating influence on climates. According to human means of perception we can distinguish: The spectral energy distribution varies with altitude, due to the filtering effect of the atmosphere.
Some of the shorter wavelengths are absorbed by the atmosphere and reradiated at much longer wavelengths, e. As the luminous efficiency of energy-radiation depends on its spectral composition, there is no constant relationship between radiation intensity and its lighting effect. The earth moves around the sun in a slightly elliptical orbit.
One revolution is completed in days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. This orbit results from the gravitational pull of the sun and the centrifugal force due to the earth's inertia and momentum.
At aphelion the solar distance is million km and at perihelion is is million km. The axis of this rotation the line joining the North and South Poles is tilted to the plane of the elliptical orbit, at an angle of Maximum intensity is received on a plane normal to the direction of radiation. If the axis of earth were rectangular to the plane of the orbit, it would always be the equatorial regions which are normal to the direction of solar radiation.
Due to the tilted position, however, the area receiving the maximum intensity moves north and south, between the tropic of Cancer latitude This is the main cause of seasonal changes. On 21 June areas along latitude At the same time latitude On 21 March and 23 September areas along the Equator are normal to the sun's rays and experience a zenith path of the sun. For all areas of the earth these are the equinox days day and night of equal length.
Figure 1 clearly explains this relationship. Fig 1 The earth—sun relationship 1. Figure 2 shows how the same amount of radiation is distributed over a larger area, therefore less radiation alls on unit area.
Fig 2 The angle of incidence 2 atmospheric depletion, i. The lower the solar altitude angle, the longer the path of radiation through the atmosphere, thus a smaller part reaches the earth's surface. Figure 3 indicates this geometrical relationship and Figure 4 shows this effect in quantitative terms for points at different heights above sea-level.
This atmospheric depletion is also affected by the momentary state of the atmosphere: Fig 3 Length of path through the atmosphere Figure 5 illustrates the distribution of incoming radiation and Figure 6 shows how the earth's surface releases heat by three processes: At the maximum heating zone which is somewhere between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn air is heated by the hot surface, it expands, its pressure is decreased it becomes lighter, it rises vertically and flows off at a high level towards colder regions.
Part of this air, having cooled down at the high level, descends to the surface in the subtropic regions, from where the cooler, heavier air is drawn in towards the Equator from both north and south.
Fig 5 Passage of radiation through the atmosphere Fig 6 Heat release from the ground and the atmosphere Fig 7 Global wind pattern The area where the air rises, where these northerly and southerly winds meet, where the tropical front is formed, is referred to as the inter-tropical convergence zone ITCZ. This area experiences either completely calm conditions or only very light breezes of irregular directions and is referred to by sailors as 'doldrums'.
The global pattern of thermal air movements is shown in Figure 7. The following explanation also relates to Figure 7. As it is light in weight and behaves as fluid, held against the earth's surface only by gravity and friction, it has a tendency to lag behind the earth's rate of rotation where this rotation is the fastest, i.
There is a slippage' at the boundary layer between the earth and its atmosphere caused by what is known as the 'Coriolis force'. The effect is experienced as a wind blowing in a direction opposite to that of the earth's rotation.
The actual wind is the resultant of thermal forces and the Coriolis force Figure 8: These are known as North East and South Easttrade-winds , a term originated by round the world traders in the days of sailing-ships.
Fig 8 Wind parallelogram 1. Winds in these zones are typically light and variable. The origin of these winds was for a long time in dispute, but it is now generally agreed that the mid-latitude westerlies can best be explained by the law of conservation of angular momentum.
If it is reduced at the Equator by easterly winds, this must be compensated for by westerly winds elsewhere. The pattern is similar to that near the Equator. Air at the surface moves from the coldest to the slightly warmer regions, i. As the circumferential velocity of air at the poles is almost nil, the air will lag behind the rotating earth as it moves away from the poles.
The northerly is deflected into north-easterly and the southerly near the South Pole into south-easterly polar winds. At the meeting point of cold polar winds and the mid-latitude westerlies, a band of low pressure — a subpolar front — is formed, with highly variable and strong winds.
The location of the ITCZ follows the maximum solar heating, i. As a consequence of this annual shift most regions of the earth experience seasonal changes not only in temperature but also in wind directions and in rainfall as a result of air movements which carry water vapour. The force, direction and moisture content of air flows are strongly influenced by topography. Air can be diverted or funnelled by mountain ranges.
Air flow deflected upwards, as it cools, releases its moisture content. A descending air mass will very rarely give any precipitation, therefore rainfall characteristics vary sharply between locations on windward and leeward slopes of mountain ranges.
The humidity of air will vary with the rate of evaporation of moisture from the surface below, i. Air movements can be generated on quite a small scale, e. Fig 9 Seasonal shifts of the inter-tropical convergence zone They include averages, changes and extremes of temperature, the temperature differences between day and night diurnal range , humidity, sky conditions, incoming and outgoing radiation, rainfall and its distribution, air movements and special features, such as trade-winds, thunder-storms, dust-storms and hurricanes.
Climatic records as gathered at airports and meteorological stations are not primarily intended Publications frequently omit some of the aspects that interest the designer. It is often necessary to supplement such information with unpublished data obtained directly from meteorological stations. It is the designer's task to analyse climatic information and present it in a form that allows him to identify features that are beneficial or harmful to the future occupants of his building.
The dry-bulb or 'true air temperature' is a value taken in the shade, the thermometer being mounted inside a louvred wooden box, known as the 'Stevenson screen Figure 10 , at a height of 1.
Readings can be taken at specified times of the day, or if a maximum—minimum thermometer is used, one reading daily can give the momentary temperature as well as the maximum and minimum temperatures reached in the past 24 hours.
Alternatively a thermograph can be used, which is based on a bimetallic thermometer and gives a continuous graphic recording of temperature variations. As a broad description, monthly mean temperatures can be given for each of the 12 months. The average is taken between each day's maximum and minimum and then the average of the 30 days' average is found and possibly as many years' average for the same month. To give an indication of diurnal variations, this can be supplemented by monthly mean maxima and minima.
Monthly mean maximum is the average of 30 days' maximum temperatures. These will establish the monthly mean range of temperatures. It may be useful to indicate the highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded for each month, i. These five values for each of the 12 months would give a reasonably accurate picture of temperature conditions, on which the design work can be based see Section 8.
The relative humidity RH is, however, a much more useful form of expression, as it gives a direct indication of evaporation potential. The amount of moisture the air can hold the saturation- point humidity: SH depends on its temperature see appendix 1.
Relative humidity is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture present, to the amount of moisture the air could hold at the given temperature — expressed as a percentage: Fig 10 The Stevenson screen Humidity is usually measured with the wet-and-dry-bulb hygrometer. This consists of two ordinary mercury thermometers mounted side by side. The first one measures the air dry-bulb temperature DBT.
The bulb of the second one is covered with a gauze or wick and is kept wet. Moisture evaporating gives a cooling effect, thus the reading of the wet-bulb temperature WBT will be less than the DBT. As in dry air the evaporation is faster, the cooling is more pronounced and the difference between the two readings the 'wet-bulb depression' is greater.
The rate of evaporation, thus the wet-bulb depression, is a function of the relative humidity. Having made the two readings, the corresponding RH can be found from the psychrometric chart Figure 12 , from a table or a special slide-rule see appendix 1.
The 'atmospheric pressure' P is the sum of the 'partial pressure of dry air' Pa and the 'partial vapour pressure' Pv: Relative humidity can also be expressed as the ratio of actual vapour pressure to the 'saturation point vapour pressure': The vapour pressure concept is rarely used in practical work. The relationship of all these quantities, i.
This is only possible, where continuous hygrograph4 recordings are available. Where these are not available, readings are made just before sunrise, e. As the early morning values are fairly high in any climate, the afternoon values are much more characteristic of a given location. They are often used alone, as a brief indication of humidity conditions.
It is measured by rain-gauges, i. Values indicating the total precipitation for each month of the year and as many years' average would show the pattern of dry and wet seasons. Ever recorded maxima and minima would give an indication of the reliability of rains or deviations from the average.
The driving rain index  characterises a given location and expresses the degree of exposure. It is the product of annual rainfall in m and the annual average wind velocity in metres per second: Obviously this index only broadly classifies the given location, the actual rain penetration will depend on the instantaneous rain intensity and the simultaneous wind velocity.
On average, two observations are made per day, when the proportion of sky covered by cloud is expressed as a percentage some records give cloud cover in 'tenths' or even in 'eighths' or 'octets', e. Few records exist of night-time sky conditions .
It would be useful for the designer to know the time of day and frequency of observations. A single average figure giving the sky conditions for a typical day of a given month may conceal significant differences, e. Fig 12 Psychrometric chart Sky luminance values are needed if daylighting in buildings is to be predicted.
A variety of more sophisticated instruments solarimeter, heliometer, actinometer and pyranometer are used for the quantitative recording of solar radiation, but reliable and comparable data is few and far between. This is the instantaneous intensity, i. This could be supplemented by the highest and lowest daily totals for each month, to set the limits of variations which can be expected.
Quantitative radiation data are not normally published by meteorological observatories, but are sometimes available on request or can be found in special publications . The US Weather Bureau collects recordings of solar radiation intensity from all countries of the world. Appendix 2 gives a series of protractors for the calculation of radiation intensities under clear sky conditions, to be used in conjunction with the stereographic sun- path diagrams.
Appendix 3 gives a method for estimating daily radiation totals on the basis of sunshine duration records. An anemograph can produce continuous recordings of wind velocity and directional changes. Free wind velocities are normally recorded in open flat country at a height of 10 m . Measurements in urban areas are often taken at a height of between 10 and 20 m to avoid obstructions. Velocities near the ground are a good deal lower than the free wind speed.
Directions can be grouped into eight or sixteen categories: A 'wind-force scale' developed by Beaufort in , based on visual observation, is still in use in spite of its completely unscientific nature. The definitions of the twelve categories are given in appendix 4. It is also important for him to note the calm periods in each month. All observatories record the occurrence of storms, hurricanes, typhoons or tornadoes. It is customary to tabulate winds according to their direction and velocity categories, in terms of their frequency of occurrence, over a significant time, generally 25 to 50 years.
Several methods of diagrammatic representation have been evolved, some of which re shown in Figures 13 and Fig 13 Monthly wind frequency graph 1. Although such events may be rare, it is important to extract from meteorological data their frequency, likely duration and nature. The designer must classify rare events into those which affect human comfort and those which may endanger the safety of buildings and the lives of inhabitants.
Discomfort — even if it impedes work or sleep — can be accepted if it is rare enough and lasts only for a few hours. Structural safety, on the other hand, must be guaranteed however infrequent the danger.
Although generally regarded as a function of climate, vegetation can in its turn influence the local or site climate. It is an important element in the design of out-door spaces, providing sun- shading and protection from glare.
This section of the climatic survey may range from a few notes about local species of plant life to a lengthy compendium of the major native plants and trees — their shape and colour, also their preferred orientation and situation.
It is necessary to sort, summarise and simplify available data with reference to the objectives and requirements of climatic design. This is accomplished best by adopting a standardised method of graphic presentation. Figure 15 illustrates a graphic method that was developed especially to facilitate environmental design. For the purposes of showing the diurnal variations of one climatic parameter e. Fig 14 Annual wind frequencies Nairobi To understand a new and unfamiliar climate one must relate it to a familiar one then measure and note essential differences.
This is best done by using the standard graphic presentation first for the climate of one's own home-town and then for the strange climate being investigated. When the two graphs are placed side by side or superimposed if one is transparent similarities and differences become apparent and characteristic features can be identified. Even the comparison of simplified climate graphs such as those shown in Figure 17 can reveal the most important differences.
Fig 15 Climate graph Nairobi — tropical upland climate Fig 16 Temperature isopleths Fig 17 Comparison of climates However, certain zones and belts of approximately uniform climates can be distinguished. It is essential for the designer to be familiar with the character and location of these zones, as they are indicative of the climatic problems he is likely to encounter.
Boundaries of climatic zones cannot be accurately mapped. One zone merges gradually and almost imperceptibly into the next. It is, nevertheless, easy to identify the zone, or the transition area between two zones, to which a particular settlement belongs.
The present work concerns itself with tropical climatic zones only, as defined in 1. The subdivision of tropical climates into climatic zones should be looked upon as a useful tool of communication. It is a code that conveys a great deal of information for those who are familiar with it.
Its usefulness increases with the increase of the number of people familiar with it, who accept and use it. It has since been widely accepted and proven useful. The basis of this classification is given by the two atmospheric factors The main criterion is: Accordingly the tropical regions of earth are divided into three, major climatic zones and three subgroups: