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GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR DUMMIES PDF

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20 Best Free PDF and E-books on Graphic Design. Just because you're creative and innovative does not mean you can conquer the design industry. Thought. Here are 20 awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics. e.V., Germany c/o Reinhard Urbanke. Erlenweg 3/1. D Kernen im Remstal. EMail: [email protected] Start. Map Design: Graphic Design.


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45 episode series video series. Interactive. PDF Worksheet Online video tutorial - Beginners guide to Graphic Design. Back to index. Overview: Hello and . Graphic Design and Print Production Fundamentals by Ken Jeffery is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution musicmarkup.info Gavin Ambrose + Paul Harris The Fundamentals of Graphic Design F The However, this is now being superceded by the Portable Document Format (PDF). These dummies can also be used for market research to gauge how target.

Once you have successfully made your request, you will receive a confirmation email explaining that your request is awaiting approval. On approval, you will either be sent the print copy of the book, or you will receive a further email containing the link to allow you to download your eBook. Please note that print inspection copies are only available in UK and Republic of Ireland. For more information, visit our inspection copies page. We currently support the following browsers: Internet Explorer 9, 10 and 11; Chrome latest version, as it auto updates ; Firefox latest version, as it auto updates ; and Safari latest version, as it auto updates. Tell others about this book Lorem About The Fundamentals of Graphic Design The Fundamentals of Graphic Design explores key aspects of design, including typography, art direction, production and finishing, environmental design, and self-promotion. It also examines the broader implications of graphic design, including social responsibility, its role in art and its future.

This also proves to be helpful for designers who have been in the field for so long, they feel the need to mix things up and introduce something new to the fold. Sometimes, change can be just the thing that could elevate your style, and these resources could serve as your starting point for these changes.

For a lot of designers, chaos is their comfort zone. But this chaos can also be causing a lot of your design problems. These resources can help you put a little order into your routine. Through the tips presented in any of these e-books below, you can slowly turn things around and work in a more organized manner. Yes, designers are allowed to break the rules every so often. This much is necessary if you want to take advantage of your inborn creativity and ingenuity.

But how can you bend the rules if you have no idea what the rules are? Consider these e-books as your starting point in this regard. Master those rules, then start thinking of creative ways on how you can tweak them, and eventually, break them. From here, you can probably start influencing the way design will work a few years from now.

The Fundamentals of Graphic Design

Every great designer never stopped learning. As new trends emerge, great designers adjusted to their environment as well. In fact, they are often the ones who trigger the change, if only to keep their creativity and innovation alive.

When you download these e-books, you open up your own mind to a new world of learning. Every designer has his or her own way of doing things, so the designers who created these resources know that there are things they do differently that could probably benefit your greatly. When discussing things with other designers, and possibly, with clients who know a bit about design, how can you make yourself come across as a credible designer who can deliver what is asked from him?

These resources are made by some of the most innovative and influential designers from around the world. This means that these are the perfect sources of quotes and anecdotes you can use in daily conversation with both peers and potential clients. Take a peek at the e-books below and start taking advantage of every single benefit you can get from them. Now, some of you might be a little worried about the costs. After all, not a lot of good things come for free.

There is often a belief that you get what you pay for. Below are awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics. Typography still proves to be one of the most crucial elements in design, especially if you want to make your message crystal clear. This e-book teaches you a lot of the basics, and a few of the advanced stuff as well. You get Volumes 1 and 2 of Interaction Design Best Practices, which discusses establishing emotional connections through your work, proper use of empty space, figuring out habitual human behavior when creating your design, and a lot more.

The third e-book is called Consistency in UI Design, something that can help you take your work a few notches higher. Branding is something that dictates how your design should be formed. And without a clear understanding of its concepts, you may end up creating design that are inconsistent with the brand. Thankfully, this e-book addresses a lot of your questions. You have to at least know the basics, and this e-book is the perfect way to go through most of these basics in one go.

The title alone should tell you how useful this could be for you and your freelance practice. Consider these tips: Focus on the types of projects you want to do. If you have a specific focus, such as book design, select the pieces that best represent it. Choose your best work. The goal isn't to show everything you've ever done. Be current. Design trends and technology change quickly, so use your most recent work as much as possible, as well as pieces that show you know the latest techniques.

Include personal projects. Don't think you have to include only paid projects. The brand identity is robust enough to be used over a range of different stationery items and other printed pieces due to the consistent use of the coloured line treatment.

The result is a striking brand image obtained through the use of vibrant lines. Notice how some of these are printed while others are produced by a die-cut that shows colour through from the stock underneath. Consumerism Social responsibility 53 Technothreads above and right This identity was created by Studio Myerscough for Technothreads and uses an image of a bound mannequin as the basis for the visual identity and brand.

This example shows that an identity can be created by a distinctive image or attitude rather than a traditional logo. This identity appeals to the savvy target audience, and adds credibility and authenticity as well as arresting the viewer with a memorable and striking brand. In order to exercise control over how various people will implement the use of a brand, companies also develop brand usage guidelines so that the company identity is effectively represented as intended.

Brand guidelines are a clear set of instructions on how to use a brand, and equally importantly, how not to use it. English National Ballet left and below Pictured are brand guidelines designed by The Team for the English National Ballet as part of a brief to create a campaign to restore the passion for the English ballet. The brand proposition aims to break down the barriers between the audience and the dancers by painting an intimate portrait of the dancers behind the scenes and capturing the moment of anticipation before they enter the stage.

As with other brand guidelines, it includes detail on how to use the brand and its imagery. Guidelines often include handy tips and notes for a designer who is using the brand in a project — for example, recommending a minimum measurement for the space where the logo is to sit.

Consumerism Social responsibility 55 Social responsibility Within the design industry there is a trend to question ethical standpoint in relation to worldwide issues such as gender, poverty and global warming. Organisations increasingly foster and promote their own ethical positions to guide their activities, which can result in conflict with personal ethics.

Agency vs designer standpoint The ethical position of a design agency, a designer and a client should all come to light during the interview stage, as all parties seek to establish whether there is a good fit among them. Ethics may cause problems when a design agency accepts a commission for a company or product that a designer is ethically opposed to, such as work on alcohol, cigarette or animal fur brands.

As the anti-consumer lobby grows, designers often find themselves caught between the two sides as their job involves making products look more appealing. More and more designers question their involvement in promoting products or services that they deem ethically or morally questionable. Designers have a key role to play in creating the visual fabric of the world around us and are instrumental in producing the cultural tapestry that binds us together as a society.

This ultimately comes with responsibility for the outcomes of design. Charity vs paid work There is the perception that work performed for charities is donated or undertaken for free. This is not always the case as charities, like any other business, realise that they get what they pay for. Most large, successful charities are run as businesses, and they procure design in the same way as any other firm.

For a charity to operate successfully, it needs to use design as a tool to convey the very specific messages that it thinks are important in order to stir people and create the social leverage they require to effect change.

Graphic Design For Dummies

While some agencies may choose to work for reduced fees or even for free for charities or causes they support, such work is rarely free. Payment could take other forms and may not always be tangible. Agencies can receive positive publicity that extends to a wider population, cultural kudos for supporting specific values and, in some cases, they may have greater creative freedom than with corporate clients.

However, this could also close the door to working with companies that the charity may be targeting. The unbleached which may be pre- or post-consumer, paper is stronger than bleached paper, such as waste paper.

Ink made from linseed and The cellophane window is made from soya vegetable oils that have been eucalyptus rather than plastic. This NB: Individual responsibility As individuals we consciously and unconsciously attempt to influence the moral behaviour of others.

As a designer, this may come in the form of encouraging clients to use less packaging; issuing smaller format publications; using recycled paper instead of heavily filled art paper; sending HTML emails rather than a printed material version; or reducing the number of overs allowed for in the print run, which may eventually end up in a landfill site. One school of thought believes that fewer, but higher-quality products should be produced so that people will keep them for longer in order to move away from the disposable culture that our society has readily adopted.

Junk mail or bulk mail is considered a nuisance by an increasing proportion of the population, and it may only be a matter of time before designers and the studios they work for are unwilling to contribute to this communication channel that generates a huge amount of waste. Identity and branding Modernism and postmodernism 57 Modernism and postmodernism Modernism and postmodernism refer to two different views of the world that developed and guided creative activity at different points in the twentieth century.

Modernist and postmodernist thinking still have relevance today and their influences can be seen in contemporary designs as people seek to make sense of the world around them.

Modernism Modernism through the cubist, surrealist and Dadaist movements was shaped by the industrialisation and urbanisation of western society.

Modernists, including the De Stijl, Constructivism and Bauhaus movements, departed from the rural and provincial zeitgeist prevalent in the Victorian era, rejecting its values and styles in favour of cosmopolitanism. In graphic design, modernism embraced an asymmetrical approach to layout with strict adherence to the grid, an emphasis on white space and sans serif typography, and the absence of decoration and embellishment.

Postmodernism Postmodernism —present is a creative movement that emerged following the Second World War and questioned the very notion that there is a reliable reality. Postmodernists deconstructed authority and the established order by engaging in the ideas of fragmentation, incoherence and the plain ridiculous.

A reaction to the sometimes bleak and impersonal Modernist movement, postmodernism returned to earlier ideas of adornment and decoration, celebrating expression and personal intuition rather than formula and structure. Postmodernism continues to be the dominant force in creative thinking where the preference is for complexity, contradiction, diversity and ambiguity rather than the rational order and simplicity that characterised modernism.

Cosmopolitan Having an exciting and glamorous character associated with travel and a mixture of cultures. Modernist fonts The quintessential philosophical differences between modernism and postmodernism are never more apparent than in font and typeface design. Modernism saw the rise of cleaner, simpler sans serif fonts, which turned their back on elaborate serif fonts and brought a sense of order to typography. This saw the use of consistent stroke weights and rounded forms to give evenly weighted characters, such as Helevetica Neue.

A new sense of order was brought to typography by the modernist numbering system developed by Adrian Frutiger to easily express the relationship between the different weights and widths of his Univers typeface. Olicana — a font that mimics handwriting. Postmodernism and typeface design Postmodern fonts have moved away from the clean-cut and well-organised forms of modernist fonts and have returned to embrace more elaborate and decorative forms, which include the return of the serif and uneven stroke weights.

Postmodernist fonts celebrate ornamentation and personal expression, and also look to include the randomness that is present in handwritten and letterpress printed texts. Handwriting The Olicana font is an example of a font that mimics handwriting see above. In order to more closely provide a facsimile of handwritten text, this font has multiple glyphs available, which means that repeated characters are not always the same.

It also includes an occasional ink blot, thumbprint or smudge to add to the impression that the text was written with a fountain pen. Obviously, there is no need for a font to mimic handwriting when type is set on a computer, but this font works well and is a very convincing approximation of handwriting.

Notice how this creates clean sight lines as the images and text align with each other and the margins. The grid The grid is a template or guide used for positioning and organising the elements of a design in order to facilitate and ease decision-making. Grids are the bone structure of a layout and serve as a tool to help a designer achieve balance while presenting a potentially large degree of creative possibilities.

The use of grids, fields and matrices allows a designer to take a considered approach to design, which makes effective use of time and space. It also ensures that different design elements work together to provide consistency and coherency throughout a body of related work. Since humankind first began recording information there has been a need to organise content. The page structures that are commonly used today can be traced back to Classical times.

Theories on proportions and the division of space developed in Ancient Greece. The grid, as a containment structure for visual communication, has evolved in tandem with developments in mark-making technology, becoming increasingly sophisticated as handwritten manuscripts were replaced by early printing, movable type, linotype and computer-to-plate printing.

The grid serves to establish parameters to guide the placement of text and elements, but strict adherence to such guidelines can be restrictive. Leading designers often challenge the structure and confines that a grid provides in order to provide the best possible solution to the design brief. There are many types of grids, including those with many columns, those with few, and those comprising of fields or modules rather than vertical columns. Two of the main grid types are shown on the opposite page.

The asymmetrical grid An asymmetrical grid is one where both pages in a spread use the same grid, which means one page is a copy of the other. These grids may have a bias towards one side of the page usually the left , created by having one column narrower than the others. This provides an opportunity for the creative treatment of certain page elements while retaining overall design consistency. The narrower column may be used for captions, notes, icons or other elements, and in this way, it is often treated as a wide margin for outsized marginalia.

An asymmetrical grid tends to create a sense of movement from the left to the right due to the way the eye first fixes on the large column before moving to the thinner column for both pages of a spread. The symmetrical grid With a symmetrical grid, the verso page is a mirror image of the recto page. This gives equal inner margins and two equal outer margins to a spread. To accommodate marginalia, the outer margins are proportionally larger than the inner margins.

This is a classic layout pioneered by typographer Jan Tschichold — based on a page size with proportions of 2: The simplicity of the layout and pages creates spatial relationships that hold the text block in harmonious proportions. This grid projects harmony because it is created using relative proportions rather than absolute measurements. A symmetrical grid tends to be calmer to read than an asymmetrical grid as both pages cause the eye to look inward towards the spine, creating a calm and balanced space for the reader rather than a sense of movement.

Here, the use of a simple grid allows for Rationel Windows leaves the grid visible, the effective placement of images and text. Tension is introduced in the design by making it an obvious and integral part of offsetting the images and having them cross the centrefold. However, the absence of the design. The grid frames inset images full bleeds results in the images being constantly framed, bringing an element of that alternate between detailed and consistency to the design.

While the grid is rigid, pace and variation are added through the use of different image configurations. Text generally flows from pages are fixed together with The space between two one column to the next, left to right. Social responsibility Nostalgia and rhetoric 63 Nostalgia and rhetoric Designers use various methods to convey meaning, often tapping into shared cultural norms, values, history and language.

The use of symbols or heroic figures from the past to support or represent a viewpoint or certain qualities is an example of the use of nostalgia and rhetoric. Nostalgia Nostalgia is the longing for past situations, bringing a feeling that things were better then than they are today.

People derive comfort from the familiar and designers use nostalgia to create, transfer and instil positive associations from the past into a design or product of today. For example, advertisements for Hovis bread employ nostalgia through images of a small baker on a cobbled street to instil the values of tradition, quality and smalltown reliability into a product that is mass-produced under factory conditions.

As consumers, we often seek robust traditional values, yet we expect the cleanliness and convenience that the modern world provides. Rhetoric Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively in order to persuade an audience. The ability to speak or communicate well by using language precisely, clearly and in a way that is readily accessible to the audience may at times be more important to winning an argument than the facts under discussion.

By keeping in mind the persuasive nature of rhetoric, designers can structure designs and control the presentation of information so that it bears more weight, impact and the element of trustworthiness. How information is presented can be more persuasive than the bare facts.

Values Sets of collected beliefs held by an individual or social group in which there is an emotional investment. Values differ widely from person to person and group to group, and can lead to acrimonious divisions when they conflict. His design brings an entirely new vision to food — its context, the way it is grown, packaged, bought and cooked — and evokes powerful memories and emotions. For example, the illustration of the Marmite jar is a clear nostalgic reference to childhood, as is the image of the plastic bread-bag tag.

The book is also interspersed with comments in a large typesize, which act as section breaks. Modernism and postmodernism Semiotics 65 Semiotics Semiotics is the study of signs that offers an explanation of how people extract meaning from words, sounds and pictures.

An understanding of semiotics helps a designer to instil work with references that enable them to communicate multiple layers of information to a reader. Semiotic principles Designers use images to communicate. When images are developed through the application of semiotic principles, a graphic device can be made to mean more than it would appear to be at first glance.

The type of image, its style and presentation, its quality and how it has been reproduced can all add layers of meaning to the overall design, drawing different meanings from the context in which it is placed. Symbols, icons and indexes Symbols are physically recognisable representations of items, while icons rely on a shared understanding. A red cross is a universally understood icon, which means help or medical treatment.

Indexes are signs that link to an object — for example, a horseshoe or an anvil could be an index for a horse. Sign Signs are often graphic elements that are used to visually represent an object, person or idea by reducing it to simple and instantly recognisable characteristics. A dog can also be represented by a graphic sign, sketch or icon. An example is the red cross — a widely recognised sign indicating that people can obtain medical treatment.

The versatile design is also an index because it suggests a slotted wooden honey spoon. Nostalgia and rhetoric Vernacular 67 Made in Medway right Made in Medway is a book designed and produced by Steve Rowland in collaboration with Medway Renaissance, an organisation that champions the Medway region of the UK.

The book features works and insights into artists and designers in the area. On a denotative level, the title type clearly conveys what the book is about. On a cognitive level, the use of type that has been threaded implies craft or being handmade.

Cognitive The way in which an image is presented dramatically affects how information is interpreted.

Images are powerful communication devices because people can extract many different values from them as they often have cognitive meanings far beyond their denotative elements. Cognition refers to things that we have perceived, learned or reasoned. A picture of a woman denotes a female, but woman may have other connotations such as family, beauty and love.

In the example above, the visual presentation provides cognitive hooks that colour how we interpret the information presented, both in terms of the vivid red colour and the font selection. Denotative A denotative meaning is the explicit literal meaning that we take from an image, essentially, taking what we see at its face value.

Graphic designers need to consider both the cognitive and denotative values that may be instilled into a piece of work due to the way that information is presented.

Different and possible interpretations can lead to confusion and contradiction where there is conflict between what we see denotative and what we perceive cognition. B B B B B B Font choices Fonts are not just symbols representing sounds; they also have cognitive qualities that help tell stories, which means designers need to consider things that are conveyed in addition to what is actually said.

The images are close-up portraits that have a lot of light reflection appearing like perspiration on the faces of people. They project a cognitive meaning of clubbers and dancers, while the black background suggests or denotes the late night, after-club experience.

Nostalgia and rhetoric Vernacular 69 Vernacular The everyday language through which a group, community or region communicates is its vernacular. Found items Designers are collectors of images, colours, textures, letterforms and other visual stimuli.

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They are cultural scavengers and the appropriation of elements are accidentally or unexpectedly found in their work. For example, the visual language of illustration and typography, whether from a s airline safety card or the signage of an old tobacconist, has a history and style that serves as a source of inspiration.

Placement The placement or relocation of found items is important, as putting an item within a new time and context can change its meaning significantly. The typography from the signage of an old tobacconist would carry a different meaning if it were placed on the signage for a modern tobacconist or the cover of a music CD. When using vernacular as a design tool, a designer needs to be aware of the connotations it will carry.

When an item is used out of context, the work may acquire new meanings that convey wit or irony, some of which may not be intended or recognised until later. Appropriation When a designer takes the style used in a design and applies it to another, often in a very different context to the original.

This may be done for several reasons: Irony When the intended meaning of a word, phrase or design is different from its literal meaning, which typically depends on context and circumstance.

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The incongruity that irony represents is often used to inject an element of humour into a design, or to highlight a discrepancy. For irony to be effective, it has to be clear to the target audience. Designers use the fact that not everyone will recognise the irony of a particular image or situation as a means of tailoring a message to specific groups of people.

Using the values of the client, Brandhouse created a design to extend its product range into new markets. Vernacular typography There are numerous examples of vernacular typography and many modern typefaces are in fact redrawn versions of fonts found by typographers in old books. One of the most famous is the font Template Gothic shown below by Barry Decks. It is a typeface based on the signage of a laundrette. Having been appropriated from other sources, vernacular typography can add meaning to a work because it has its own personal history or story to tell, giving it added personality.

The typefaces below demonstrate that they are more than simply letterforms — they carry additional meanings that should be considered when selecting fonts. Vernacular image-making Images can also make use of vernacular inputs to alter their perceived meanings. Designers draw inspiration from the graphic possibilities and the visual language found in the urban environment.

These elements are then often incorporated into their own work. Presenting information in a certain style, such as the graffiti found on any street corner in a city, will incite different reactions from various groups. Teenagers may respond positively to the message presented, while adults may shun it.

Template Gothic typefaces also tell stories Academy Engraved typefaces also tell stories Semiotics Chapter 3 The graphic design process The graphic design process involves all the steps necessary to produce a piece of printed or electronic work — from agreeing a brief with the client to sketching conceptual ideas for design development and liaising with those involved in the production process, such as printers and programmers.

How this process is structured and undertaken is dictated by the complexity of a job, the range of media it is being created for and the number of other people involved in the process. Working with large clients and agencies may entail more steps than working with smaller organisations, and each job requires a different combination of design skill sets.

Armed with creative thinking tools, personal influences and source material, a designer can respond to a brief and generate creative solutions for it. However, it must be noted that there are two distinct kinds of brief. Formal A formal brief is a written document provided to a designer together with supporting reference material detailing a clear set of objectives that are to be met by the design.

These criteria can relate to creative aspirations, aesthetic values, brand development, or more tangible goals, such as redesigning a website to convert more hits into sales. Whatever the aim, having a formal brief allows all parties involved to understand what is intended. Informal The second type of brief is informal and is often little more than a fleeting conversation or telephone call. In such instances, it is important for the designer to take notes and ask questions in order to get a clear understanding of what is required and why.

It is good practice to follow an informal conversation with a letter or email which can be sent to the client to confirm that there is a shared understanding regarding the brief.

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This also formalises and solidifies the aims and objectives of the project. This briefing method allows the designer to tap into the enthusiasm of the client, which may spark ideas during the conversation. For example, a client may think they need a new website to increase sales, but the better solution may be to develop new marketing material.

Rewriting the brief gives the design team an opportunity to challenge, clarify and realign the brief to ensure that it is clear and that the final design meets the stated goals of the client. The brief required a show concept that was less corporate than previous years and more appealing to the potential design exhibitors. In response, Blast produced a strong concept that resulted in an engaging campaign based on the idea that good design improves the environment.

Using a subtle play on the conventions of environmental campaigns, the resulting images acted as a call to action for designers to come together to improve the environment. The photographer, Sanjay Kalideen, was briefed to compose dramatic shots that convey the feel of a fashion shoot. Each design element can communicate to an audience, but messages may not be readily identified, acknowledged or understood by all viewers due to differences in how people receive or interpret information.

Design choices A designer has to select from numerous choices available. As seen previously, typography is not just a bunch of letters and fonts, but elements that are selected with reference to their historical or philosophical origins, and how they look, fill and colour a space. Colours evoke different emotions and bring a host of meanings and references. An image may be a straightforward representation of an object or it may represent something totally different depending upon how it is treated, and the relationships it enjoys with other design elements.

Initially, a client may not make all the connections and interpretations that a designer has instilled into a job. Presenting work often requires a designer to explain the thinking behind the choices made in order for the client to understand its merits. For example, the Nike swoosh and the Starbucks character logo have become incredibly successful designs even though the vast majority of people do not know what they represent or the reasons behind the design choices made.

A subjective viewpoint could be what a design means to the target consumer, while everyone else has an objective viewpoint regarding its meaning. Establishing a desirable subjective viewpoint that appeals to the target audience without alienating other people is not as easy as one might think.

For example, what may be a cute bunny rabbit that appeals to one group of people could seem tacky and tired to another. This multidisciplinary agency uses various media to produce stunning designs such as the one pictured. Notice how illustration has been used to augment the qualities of the photograph and enhance its visual appeal.

For example, one group may be more interested in the price of a bottle of ketchup, while another makes its downloading decision based on the quality of the ingredients.

A person who downloads ketchup according to its price may download mayonnaise based on its taste or ingredients. Having an understanding of what considerations are important in the decision-making of a target group allows a designer to incorporate such sought after information triggers into a design. Some people readily grasp an over-reaching concept, but get stuck on the details, while others grasp the details well but cannot fathom the bigger picture.

A design needs to communicate at the appropriate level so that the target audience can understand the information presented. A design can be critically appraised for its aesthetic qualities, but while this is a valid practice, a design always generates a response in those who view it, regardless of whether a critic thinks it is good or bad. This may cause conflict, but one must bear in mind that a designer does not design for themselves but to satisfy the needs of a client who may have a better sense of what the ultimate target group will respond to.

The brief Sources of inspiration 77 Sources of inspiration Design is a discipline shaped by a varied and eclectic set of influences from both the past and present, which inform the choices and decisions made during the design process. Influences may be profound or partial and may influence the overall structure and content of a job, or appear as a subtle twist. Urban environment Designers may be influenced by the vernacular language of the urban environment to produce a piece that is current and modern, or work with classical ideas when dealing with spacing and proportion.

Art Art has always influenced design. The principles that have defined and guided art movements have readily been adapted and brought into design, particularly those relating to page layout and composition. For example, the rule of thirds is used to define the focal point within a piece of work, while the rule of odds is used to make more interesting compositions.

Culture The majority of designs are produced to serve a present need so the existing culture becomes a common reference or influence for a piece of work aiming to appeal to its target audience. Designers use the elements of popular culture such as colours, typefaces and accepted social norms or taboos in their work to reflect the times they live in and to appeal to the communal mind of the population.

Movies The immediacy of motion pictures and the striking image sequences often produced can inspire designers to structure layouts and publications in similar ways. For example, this book discusses the importance of pace and narrative in a piece of work, aspects that can be structured like a movie. Pace and intensity could be changed and manipulated through the use of different treatments for layouts, images and text.

Magazines, in particular, tend to appropriate from a wide range of influences to produce visually dynamic covers and spreads right. Designers also glean inspiration from random objects and items such as these Russian dolls below. Magazines There are many publications for and about the design industry.

These are not only useful for viewing works of other designers, but for keeping abreast with movements, trends and technologies within the industry in general.

Industry publications also allow a designer to build a contact book and keep track of who is working where, which may be useful in the future. These publications often also provide relevant information on the administrative side of the design business, such as legal issues, tax advice and copyright, in addition to details of various organisational bodies and associations.

Music Design and music appear to have a symbiotic relationship as a designer can follow musical principles to inject pace or rhythm into a project. A designer can mimic the beats that music has through the use of large-scale images or text-free pages — interludes within the content flow, creating different beats in how page content is split between image and text pages.

Objects Collections of objects and found items can also provide an eclectic and exciting set of influences. Designers actively seek inspiration for their work in various locations, even in their respective cities. At other times, inspiration may come from objects within their studio. These influences can creep into design decisions. Many designers like to surround themselves with interesting objects, pictures, posters and other stimuli in order to be constantly inspired.

Other areas of design Graphic designers draw inspiration from all creative fields including other fields of design, such as furniture and interiors. Indeed, many creative people do not see themselves as being limited to one discipline. For example, the De Stijl and Bauhaus schools were involved in painting, furniture and graphic design, using common principles to guide their work across different disciplines and media.

Articulating design Design as problem solving 79 Design as problem solving An important part of the design process deals with overcoming creative, practical or economic obstacles.

This may sound straightforward, but often, the problem is ephemeral — a feeling that something is not right with a design.

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Problem solving entails working through the various elements of a design and not simply making assumptions as to what the problem is. Questions not answers Often, a design problem is not what we initially think it is and it is frequently a good idea to start by questioning the very question that we are asking.

It is easy to assume that design is the answer to solving a problem, but doing this may mean that the wrong question has been asked and is in turn answered. In the case of advertising, there may be several ways to increase the sales of a product. One is to redesign its visual or advertising images, but this is not the only way.

The real problem may be that the product does not meet the requirements of its target audience and may instead require a repositioning within the market rather than a redesign. As there is more than one solution to a problem, there is also often more than one question that needs to be asked.

It may be the case that a client who engages a designer to solve a problem may not have asked themselves the right question to begin with. Macro and micro problems Macro problems are those that affect the big picture, such as overall product strategy. On the other hand, micro problems are smaller in scale and affect specific elements within a strategy. Different problems require different solutions with varying skill sets required.

How to produce a complex book design within a certain extent or page count is a different exercise from creating a new brand image, although both are undertaken by the design discipline. Design is one element of the macro picture and is a function that sits besides product development, advertising, marketing, public relations, production and distribution.

Some clients may think that design can solve every problem, but ultimately, design cannot rectify what is essentially a non-design problem. Target audience The main recipient or demographic of a message or a product. Note how the crossbars of the E and A unite to form what could be crosshairs, implying focus and precision, while at the same time resembling a shining star or beacon implying brilliance.

Putting the colour sample on a tube gives a truer colour representation to clients and architects due to the way light falls on its curved surface, making colours appear darker in the shadow area and lighter where full light is received. Sources of inspiration Creative thinking 81 Methods of problem-solving There are different approaches that can be taken when thinking about design.

A design problem can be approached from various perspectives using different methodologies, which can all aid a designer to develop a workable solution. The approach taken will depend upon the nature of the job in hand, as well as the experience and preferences of the designer. Experienced creative designers refrain from following the same processes every time; using different methods allows a problem to be viewed from different perspectives, which provides a means for the unexpected to enter into the piece.

This approach reveals the important relationships between different elements and the functionality required between them.