Title, Generation,Distribution And Utilization Of Electrical Energy. Author, C. L. Wadhwa. Edition, 3. Publisher, New Age International Publishers Limited, Generation and Utilization of Electrical Energy. Front Cover · S. Sivanagaraju. Pearson Education India, - Electric power distribution · 8 Reviews. The book provides a clear, systematic and exhaustive exposition of various aspects of Generation Distribution and Utilization of Electrical.
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Generation, Distribution and Utilization of Electrical Energy. Front Cover · C. L. Wadhwa. New Age International, - Electric power distribution - pages. Title, Generation, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy. Author, C. L. Wadhwa. Publisher, Wiley, Original from, the University of Virginia. Digitized. Various non-conventional and conventional methods of generating electric energy have been musicmarkup.infoics of generation, starting with the load survey.
Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented.
There would be no storage of hydrogen in the appliance; the consumer would connect the appliance up to the vehicle, which would receive its charge of hydrogen overnight.
It should be recognized that with this approach, the consumer is downloading most of her or his fuel up-front, with reoccurring charges from the electricity used to power the electrolyzer. Electrolyzers in the Infrastructure Using electrolyzers to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles with our current fossil-based energy infrastructure actually doubles the CO2 produced per mile compared to commercial internal combustion engine technology19 because of the low efficiency of the current electricity generation system and the efficiency of electrolysis.
Therefore, this approach is viable only if there is a concurrent program for major introduction of renewable generation of electricity. Alternatively, small-scale reformers , cars per day generating hydrogen from natural gas would cut emissions CO2 per mile by half. This approach may be viable for the short term, but it is not sustainable in the long term. Water Issues Water is already an issue for current fossil-fueled plant construction, especially in the arid western United States.
Water is also a global issue. The conclusion is that water desalination plants will be necessary. The author respectfully offers the following recommendations. Any renewable energy system that produces electrons should be connected to the grid in such a way as to directly reduce the CO2 emissions from current fossil energy generation and avoid construction of additional fossil fuel power plants.
Integrating PV into current buildings and future building designs should be strongly encouraged. Wind farms, being the least-cost renewable energy systems, should be encouraged with incentives and legislative mandates. Biomass-based power plants and parabolic-trough hybrid systems could integrate seamlessly into the current infrastructure, providing continuous power and lowered CO2 emissions.
Fuel cell vehicles should be deployed with hydrogen as the on-board fuel.
Hydrogen is the preferred fuel because it provides the greatest benefit in terms of fuel economy and emissions. These would be deployed as the technology is proven.
Efficiency also relates directly to costs. These efficiencies include the following: Efficiency of electrical generation PV, wind, solar thermal, etc. Efficiency of energy storage hydrogen, flywheel, etc. For hydrogen: electrolysis efficiency and fuel cell efficiency 2.
For flywheel: bearing losses Efficiency of utilization Efficiency of system coupling Silicon SolarCell Technology The PV industry has been very good at reducing costs; however, it is going to run up against a barrier in the cost of the silicon feedstock used to make solar cells.
Low-cost, low-energy technologies must be developed that can take the raw material quartz and refine it into solar-grade silicon. Techniques are being developed to grow thin layers of silicon on various substrates to minimize the amount of silicon used in the manufacture of solar cells.
Research is needed to determine ways to make thin-film silicon perform at high efficiencies and, in particular, how to mitigate the effect of grain boundaries. Thin-Film Solar Cell Technology For production in the range of about 30 GW per year the material availability with current technologies—particularly for the elements indium, gallium, tellurium, and germanium—would cause supply issues.
Research is needed for the discovery and development of new thin-film semiconductors that will reduce or eliminate the necessary amount of these materials.
Research is needed for the discovery and development of new thin-film semiconductors that will replace current toxic and heavy metals cadmium, tellurium, lead with nontoxic materials. In the meantime, in case they cannot be eliminated, research is needed on the recovery and recycling of these toxic materials.
Work is needed on the replacement of toxic or explosive feedstock gases that are used in the manufacture of thin-film systems. Multijunction thin-film systems have to be developed for increased solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency. Continued work is necessary on the fundamental mechanism for the degradation of amorphous silicon devices.
There may also be some stability issues with the other thin-film technologies. Wind Technical issues for improved turbine performance and lower costs include aerodynamics, structures and fatigue, advanced components, and wind characteristics. Research in computational fluid dynamics CFD , which is a group of methods that deal with simulating airflows around, for example, rotor blades for wind turbines, is also needed.
Materials engineering is needed for advanced components to improve performance and reduce hardware costs. Research into innovative generators and advanced controls, including power electronics, is needed.
Other activities that must be conducted include developing an updated, comprehensive national database for utility and industry access and improving resource assessment and mapping techniques and wind forecasting. Solar-Thermal Research issues related to increasing the efficiency and decreasing the costs of solar-thermal technology include the following: Optical materials—durability, flexibility easily applied to compound curvature surfaces , high reflectivity, easy cleanability, low cost Concentrators heliostats and dishes —low-cost drives, lightweight structures, high optical accuracy, flexible control systems, low-cost, innovative system concepts.
These data are already being used directly by the local DSOs, or by the aid of third-party companies, to detect and solve local problems in the grid faster than what was previously possible.
The AMI rollout creates a backbone functionality for the design of local energy markets and trade in energy flexibility.
Together with the advent of IoT Internet of Things technologies that enable improved control of loads and feeds, it is possible to establish mechanisms that allow various forms of local trade. A local market can cater for the self-balancing energy cells where local production and loads are matched through price signals. Increased self-consumption within a neighbourhood is often a desired effect. A local market can also function as a tactical unit for the central market and the grid, shifting between internal trade and export as prices change or when the grid owner needs to alleviate congestions or voltage problems.
Benefits of local electricity markets Indeed, as a core benefit, local energy markets encourage active participation of prosumers through differentiated prices between locally and centrally produced power. Further, local markets facilitate the market-based utilisation of flexible assets, giving end-users economically profitable opportunities to handle local storage and be flexible in their consumption.
This enables local markets to solve many of the issues regarding the implementation of smart grid solutions, especially around incentives, business models, and adoption. Active participation in local trading allows consumers to reduce their electricity cost and increase their energy independence at the same time as they maintain their comfort. Trade can be peer-to-peer or be managed through a pool.
It should encourage exchange of locally produced surplus where prosumers sell renewable energy to consumers within a restricted perimeter, typically within the same point of coupling. But it could also be trade in energy flexibility where priority sale is prevalent. This means that some must yield to allow others to increase their consumption for a period. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security.
The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. Introduction Economic growth, automation, and modernization mainly depend on the security of energy supply. Global energy demand is rapidly growing, and, presently, the worldwide concern is on how to satisfy the future energy demand. Long-term projections indicate that the energy demand will rapidly increase worldwide.
To supply this energy demand, fossil fuels have been used as primary energy sources.