Lexikon Online ᐅOriginal Equipment Manufacturer (OEM): Erstausrüster; Abnehmer von Hardwarekomponenten (Hardware), die ein anderer. Request PDF on ResearchGate | System Dynamics, Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon, | Kurzerklärung: Methodik zur Analyse komplexer und dynamischer. [Gab16] Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon: keyword: MOOC, Springer Gabler Verlag. wissen 3/ musicmarkup.info%20 innovation%20zfo%pdf.
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Front Matter. Pages I-XXXII. PDF · A. Katrin Alisch, Ute Arentzen, Eggert Winter. Pages PDF · B. Katrin Alisch, Ute Arentzen, Eggert Winter. Pages . Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon. ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices. Gabler Wirtschafts Lexikon. ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices.
In order to achieve this aim, a paradigm shift in the curriculum development approach took place. All academic programmes are to be constructed output instead input oriented. Nevertheless, this shift did and does not make input criteria completely needless, but transforms them. However, the importance of the relation of study to work is not only based on the input as workload , but on the output of the process of study, too. Studying is no longer considered as a separate area outside the working world, but as a preparation for it. This aspect is of specific value in programmes which combine study and vocational education.
A severe accident however restricted him soon to office work. From he worked as a secretary for the director of construction of the railway company. Later he became a technical consultant for company's headquarters and in the head of its statistics department.
He retired in with the title of a chief inspector. Lill is best remembered for a contribution in mathematics and his traffic and transportation research.
In mathematics he devised graphic procedure to determine the roots of polynomials , which in essence is clever graphical representation of Horner's scheme. Later it became known as Lill's method.
It was one of the first attempts to model the quantity of travellers, in particular railroad passengers, between two locations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Uncommon Mathematical Excursions: Polynomia and Related Realms. Grundlagen der Verkehrs- und Siedlungsplanung: Lillsches Reisegesetz, online im Internet: Since the Bologna Process started in June , higher education is determined from employment market policy related targets.
On the other hand labour market rules and institutions have significant impact on the ability of an individual to gain employment.
Hence, a person with the same knowledge and skills characteristics might fare very differently in different national or regional labour markets. As learning outcomes are mainly related subjectively as student-centred 14 and objectively as market demanded , study is no longer independent from work. Study is work related, as it has to prepare the graduates for job. This aspect is of specific value in programs which combine study with vocational education.
In August , the database of Studis Online registered degree programs of universities in Germany Berufsakademien, a special, controversial form of higher education institutions, excluded. Furthermore, they start their professional career during their studies accompanied and coached by experienced university staff. At the end of their studies post- graduates should be qualified for the European job world.
Nevertheless, study is of importance not only for the student and the labour market s , but for the society, too. In this respect it is important to remember the Lisbon Strategy. As higher education policy has a definite European perspective, study has a European perspective, too.
Study cannot seen just nationally, it is to be integrated into a pan-European development concept. As this concept is economically determined, study refers not only to work, but to the further development of work. Higher education and labour market are seen in a dialectic relationship. On the one hand the labour market defines the needs which study has to meet in order to prepare students for work; on the other hand study has to reflect the present economy and knowledge society , their achievements and challenges in order to recognise weaknesses and provide solutions and concepts for further development.
The key word in this regard is knowledge.
In this regard, the overall aim of the Lisbon Strategy is reflected and applied in the field of learning and teaching respectively. Studying as learning is seen as a process to get acquainted with the needs, expectations and challenges of the EU as a developing knowledge society. As Drucker rightly said, the success of knowledge societies depends from the allocation of knowledge to productive use.
The Paradigm Change from Theory to Practice All the observations which have been already mentioned indicate a fundamental shift in the concept of study.
In the time of Plato and Aristotle, it was a sign of independence to dedicate the own life to theory. Life was dominated in these times still by labour and determined by the intention to ensure survival of the own body. Men of ancient times acted as animal laborans; men of the modern age act as homo faber. According to Hannah Arendt, this new type of man invented the perspective of objectivity in so far as it views the world as a world of objects. Conclusion Focusing on study as work showed that the Bologna Process leaded to the economization of education.
This was demonstrated from the perspectives and expectations of the political decision-makers who esteem the EU as a knowledge society that competes with all the other societies, countries and regions in the world.
Although the economic perspective is undoubtedly very important, it is not and should not be the only perspective. Vita activa and vita contemplativa should not be played off against each other. Metzler, Stuttgart and Weimar, Vol. In the future Europe, built upon a knowledge-based society and economy, lifelong learning strategies are necessary to face the challenges of competitiveness and the use of new technologies and to improve social cohesion, equal opportunities and the quality of life.