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Shear strength averaged Tensile strength averaged AS Titanium alloy aerospace fasteners have been manufactured for over 50 years. NAS SPS Technologies had recently developed a high-strength titanium fastener alloy. It is generally recognized. The part configuration selected was EN The intent of the present study was to establish whether this new titanium alloy could be used to manufacture a protruding head.
A few other special-purpose. By and large. AS specify minimum tensile strengths and double shear strengths of ksi MPa and ksi MPa. In addition. For the last half-century. For years.
That is. SPS Technologies sought to develop a titanium alloy that could be used to manufacture bolts over a wide range of sizes that would be capable of maintaining the tensile.
Inspection found that the dimensions conformed to the requirements of AS The requirement is specified in EN Table A7.
Table 2. Cross sections from the heads.
Continuous flow lines in the thread roots indicate threads were rolled after heat treatment. Representative photomicrographs of head-to-shank fillets. The core microstructure consisted of medium-sized beta grains. Per the EN requirement. Cold work is apparent in the head-to-shank fillet region from the fillet rolling operation. The sample measured parts per million satisfying the parts per million maximum requirement.
The microstructures we re typical for beta titanium.
MPa Location 7. Newtons Strength. This is the parameter used for these titanium bolts. Bearing surface is at the upper right. Short thread Inch series Luft-und Raumfahrt Zylinderopfschraube.
These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter.
Upsetting and bulging are other results in open die forging. Lengthening and upsetting are done as the piece is incrementally rotated on its longitudinal axis and advanced lengthwise through the die. There is basically no limit to the size of a forging made with the open-die method. However, most work will require extensive machining to achieve their shape or net shape.
Open forge die shapes are usually flat, V-shape, or semi-rounds. Die accessories include saddles, blocks, rings, mandrels, and punches.
All these are commonly made of hot-work tool steels or medium carbon steels. During forging graphite based lubricants are used. As the work done in open forging is usually large and cumbersome, heavy duty and often mechanically powered material handling equipment is needed such as cranes, fork lifts, and various rotating devices.
These dies are often heated to maintain proper forging temperatures. This type of forging is often done in heavy presses as well as with hammers. Workpieces may be round or rectangular in cross section, or flat discs. Simple shapes may be forged in a single stroke while more complicated pieces may pass through several strokes and die cavities before achieving their final form.
This flash is subsequently removed manually or by special trimming dies.
With a carefully controlled pre-form size and shape, flashless forging is possible. As in open die forging, graphite lubricants are used.
Water or oil based, such lubricants enhance metal flow, minimize die wear, retard heat loss, and aid in releasing the work from the die. The final forged part is much closer to net shape than with open-die forging and is of higher quality, both dimensionally and metallurgically. Seamless ring forging is the circumferential expansion and cross section of a centrally pierced, disk shaped workpiece. Both exterior and interior profiles can be obtained on the ring rolling machine which consists of a mandrel or undriven wheel and a driven outer wheel.
As the distance between the rollers and mandrel closes, the forging action takes place. Products produced include gear blanks, bearing races, valve bodies, wheels, and turbine components.