The Book of Job has long been praised as a masterpiece of literature. “The Book of Job taken as a mere work of literary genius, is one of the most wonderful. THE BOOK OF JOB. Job i. There was a man in the land of Uz,. 17 There came also another, and said, whose name was Job; and that man was. The Chaldeans . One of the Bible's greatest wisdom books is the book of Job. This Lent we Martin Luther asserted that “Job is magnificent and sublime as no book of Scripture.
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Old Testament (Various Authors), The Book of Job (KJV)  This text-based PDF or EBook was created from the HTML version of this book and is part of. Book of Job is poetry and to make matters worse it is poetry that has been translated from musicmarkup.info account in the Bible,1 the Book of Job is a mixture of divine and human The Book of Job: God's Answer to the Problem of Undeserved Suffering [Grand.
In this chapter we will discuss the Book of Job and the opening chapter in the Book of Genesis, i. Genesis 1, both as narratives and as poetic texts and explore the philosophical and theological consequences for a better understanding of the concept of chance. In the prologue of the Book of Job, chance is referred to as the result of a wager between God and the satan, who is described as one of the sons of God. In the dialogue between Job and his friends, bad luck is viewed as a consequence of bad behaviour while good luck is the result of good behaviour. In this sense, chance clearly functions within a moral framework of retribution. Also the opening chapter of the Book of Genesis offers a non-deterministic view on chance. Chance is not the exception in a causal or necessary chain of events, but it stands out in a framework of non-linear thinking in which totality and instantaneity alternate.
At home, my wife demanded to see me alone.
Only when everyone had left, she hissed what sin have you done? I'm blameless, woman. The Lord does as the Lord wills. I bent again in prayer that night. I thanked him for his goodness. I thanked him for his mercy. I begged that he end his silence. Master, master, we are lost. All of the cattle, the oxen, the sheep, the goats have sickened and died in the night. I fell to my knees and wretched. No, I did not need Ra'id ph to confirm his report.
I tore the gown from my back and demanded he bring me sackcloth and ashes, the raiment of mourning. I covered my face in the ash of my own fields and wrapped myself in a sack intended for dung from the fields. As I walked to the temple to seek blessing, my wife stopped me. Would you bring me more shame? To be seen as such is an abomination. Care for Lila and my sons. On the road to the temple, people averted their gaze from me. Some openly turned their backs, making a big show of their disdain.
Let them mock. I knocked upon the temple gate, begged entry. The elder approached, head bowed.
He showed me the palm of his hands. No, brother, you cannot come here. I would speak to God. You cannot step into this place. I set the stone for this place. He shook his head at me the way a reproachful father might tut his willful child. Repent your sin, brother. Your folly finds you out. My sin? How dare you speak to me? Who shares your bed, elder? His face in fury first, then he gathered his ropes and retreated behind the walls, leaving me outside the gate my own hands had built.
Just two days before, he would've thrown open the welcome with trumpets and songs, but now, repent. But what is my sin? I asked the unanswered darkness this question that night.
Lord, tell me my wrong. Show me my transgressions. Speak to me once more. Speak to me. No footsteps. No sharp knocks on the door, not at first. Just wailing, wailing heard around my grounds. I covered my ears to download a few more seconds before catastrophe.
My wife ran into the room, eyes wide with panic. She ripped the blanket from Lila's palette as there lay the baby perfectly still, unmoving, lips blue as the morning sky. Shouting No. My whole being became a long, unending scream.
I tried to push my breath into hers. Take me, Lord. Take me instead. I held her tight to will my own warmth to hers. But he would not give her back to me. In the night, with one slash of his scythe, he had taken my baby girl and her 10 brothers as well. Thief - murderer - God. The servants fled. Childhood friends debated my curse. My wife, her beautiful raven hair turned, suddenly, silver.
She wandered the forest as if hoping to find the children under a rock, in a stream, climbing a tree. The next morning, a new plague. My skin became wracked with boils and lesions. I scarcely noticed. I no longer bowed.
I sat. This was no prayer; this was a demand. You will speak to me now. No food, no water; I ate only hatred. I think that even this chapter fits flawlessly into the structure of the book and could be understood as Job's ninth response to the friends and as the conclusion of the three cycles of speeches. Hartley like others interprets as referring to human ingenuity in the field of mining.
Tur-Sinai, Rashi, and Ibn Ezra who saw these verses a praise of God's creative powers at the beginning of creation. According to this view which Hartley does not share Job acknowledges, in chap. But, although neither divine creatures nor humans know even the path to the place of Wisdom, humans are able to live according to ' "lM M", "Awe of Adonai.
Chapter 28 then functions as a powerful conclusion to the cycle of speeches and as an indictment of God. Hartley is one of the few commentators who tries to respect the consonantal MT, but even he changes it in a few places e. He assumes with all other scholars that the text has suffered many disturbances which make Job one of the most obscure books in the Hebrew Bible. I disagree with this assumption. What is disturbed and corrupt is our understanding of ancient Hebrew. I continue to be convinced that the text of Job can be read without changing even one consonant.
The select bibliography prudently extends If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE. Have you not put up a protective hedge around him and his house and everything he has? Some claim that God is itself a concept, but in that case one must be a convinced atheist to believe in such a nonsense Rm 1: The suspicion toward the Bible comes mainly from archaeologists who claim frequently, because of the lack of data, that historical evidence is wrong.
For example, most archaeologists believed that major trade trips between Mesopotamia and Canaan were mythical despite the fact that a trip of km between Uruk and Lebanon c. Fortress Press pp. CNRS Editions pp. Many academics refer again and again to Albright's statements of , for whom camels in the Bible were anachronistic, persisting to ignore archaeological evidence of a domestication around BCE3.
Camel seems to have been domesticated in Arabia since the 3rd millennium BCE. Several studies mention relics, texts and animal remains which support domestication of the camel in Arabia5 starting prior to BCE. Many petroglyphs6 occurring on rocks in Saudi confirm this, showing the presence of camel bones dating to late 3rd millennium7. Some petroglyphs are accompanied by text containing the names of people who can be located in time, like the one found in the desert east of Edfu with the name Imai which is uncommon and appears only during the reign of Pepi II and situated the inscription Archaeologists claim that at that time the majority of people were illiterate and only professional scribes knew writing, however the analysis of correspondence of the Assyrian merchants, around BCE, in Kanesh9 Hittite capital in Anatolia have shown that many of them were sending letters to their family, including their wives, and they got written responses through letters.
For archaeologists Moses, if he ever existed! These statements and dates are historically grotesque since those authors are well aware that the Semites who came from Egypt and lived in Palestine knew the old writing called proto- Canaanite12, the ancestor of Old Hebrew.
Moreover the oldest epigraphs in paleo-Hebrew, dated BCE13 are close to those much later still c. As chronology is the backbone of history, at which epoch did Job live see "Dating the Biblical Chronology"? Job's genealogy is not known, probably because he was not an Israelite, but the genealogy of Elihu, one of his youngest comforters, is partly given: So Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite began to speak, saying: The genealogy of Buz is given: After this it was reported to Abraham: Journal of Near Eastern Studies Peeters pp.
Institut Orientaliste Vol. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York Ed. Doubleday pp. Tzechoslovak Institute of Egyptology pp. Eisenbrauns, p. Sheffield University Press pp.
Milcah bore these eight to Nahor the brother of Abraham Gn Given that Job received exactly the double of all he had before his trial15 Job After this Job lived for years, and he saw his children and his grandchildren —four generations Job As it is written: There is no one like him on the earth, he is an upright man of integrity, fearing God and shunning what is bad Job 1: Given that Abraham's genealogy can be precisely dated, Job was likely a contemporary of Manasseh Gn Abraham Nahor II ?
Shuah [-] [-] Rachel Teman ? Eliphaz II Bildad Job Elihu The precision "Eliphaz the Temanite" means literally "Eliphaz the one of Teman", which can be understood as either "Eliphaz the descendant of Teman" or "Eliphaz the man of Teman city ", which is the meaning suggested by the text of Jeremiah Consequently, Eliphaz the Temanite had to have lived in Teman.
It was usual in the past to give names to cities or regions from their founder or from a famous ancestor. Given that Eliphaz was a close friend of Job, one can assume that they were living not very far from each other, besides Teman and Bozra were probably the two main cities of Edom Am 1: Furthermore, Job lived in the land of Uz Job 1: O daughter of Edom, living as you do in the land of Uz Lm 4: The targum of Job translated "7 sons and 3 daughters" into "14 sons and 3 daughters" for the Jews only the sons are a blessing!
Gabalda pp. The Westminster Press pp. Job was likely dwelling in a city not far from the wilderness situated on the King's Road between Bozra and Elath because it is written: The cattle were plowing and the donkeys were grazing beside them when the Sabaeans [from Sheba] attacked and took them, and they killed the servants with the sword.
I am the only one who escaped to tell you While he was still speaking, another one came and said: The Chaldeans [coming from Shinar] formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and took them, and they killed the servants with the sword Suddenly a great wind came from the wilderness, and it struck the four corners of the house Job 1: In addition, the text of Job 6: The language of Job was presumably Old Canaanite, language of the region at that time, although heavily influenced by Arabic as the names he gave to his daughters are of Arabic origin, such as Jemimah Job Several clues converge to locate Job's city or residency near Bozrah.
Job was "as a king" a leading figure in the area at the time and as he possessed large herds and slaves Job 1: Second clue: First example the road to Shur: Let us go to Dothan. So Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan When they looked up, there was a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead.
Their camels were carrying labdanum gum, balsam, and resinous bark, and they were on their way down to Egypt Gn Second example the road to the Arabah: Now in the days of Amraphel 18J. Inter-Varsity Press pp. All of these joined forces at the Valley of Siddim, that is, the Salt Sea.
They had served Chedorlaomer for 12 years, but they rebelled in the 13th year. So in the 14th year, Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, and the Horites in their mountain of Seir down to El-paran, which is at the wilderness.
Then they turned back and came to En- mishpat, that is, Kadesh, and conquered the whole territory of the Amalekites and also the Amorites who were dwelling in Hazazon-tamar Gn The route for the return trip taken by Chedorlaomer and his allies is well described in the Bible. The places visited are: This road was known as the King's Road.
The Chedorlaomer's route in green; Abraham's route is in red and the description of his actions show that this king came to an area near Egypt in order to maintain control over a new land trade route. The revolt which occurred in the 13th year of his rule Gn Chedorlaomer's trip was therefore a police operation to force rebel kings to pay, but as they refused their cities were looted. Magnes Press, Hebrew University p.
Syria Although Job was a cattle farmer he was not a nomad since he and his sons lived in houses of clay Job 1: I used to go out to the city gate and take my seat in the public square Job Job also knew of the existence of copper mines Job Thus Job and his sons probably lived in Bozrah, but only a tiny part of this old city24 has been excavated and the oldest remnants are dated around 9th century BCE Given that for most archaeologists an absence of evidence is an evidence of absence, the land of Edom never existed before.
However, even if archaeological remnants no longer remain, there are a few Egyptian documents which confirm the biblical account.
The former name of the land of Edom was Mount Seir: So Esau took up dwelling in the mountainous region of Seir. Esau is Edom. And this is the history of Esau the father of Edom in the mountainous region of Seir These are the sons of Esau, and these are their sheikhs. He is Edom. These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: These are the sheikhs of the Horites, the sons of Seir, in the land of Edom Gn Mount Seir KUR. Egyptian documents confirm 3 biblical pieces of information: Edom existed long before the 9th century BCE, its former name was "the land of Seir" and its inhabitants were mostly Bedouin livestock consequently the cities of Edom would have been small.
These name changes highlight the need of knowing when and in which language the document is quoted before comparing information. For example, according to the biblical text, Moses finished his book Torah just before he died in BCE and after entering the Promised Land: As soon as Moses had completed writing the words of this Law in a book in their entirety For this is no empty word for you, but it means your life, and by this word you may live long in the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess.
Jehovah spoke to Moses on this same day, saying: Go up into this mountain of Abarim, Mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, which faces toward Jericho, and view the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites as a possession. Then you will die on the mountain you are about to ascend, and be gathered to your people, just as Aaron your brother died on Mount Hor and was gathered to his people Dt Penguin Books pp.
Faynan, Jordan in: Antiquity 84 pp. Zondervan Publishing House p. Magnes Press, Hebrew University pp. Cerf pp. The book of Job was probably written at the same time as the book of Genesis for the following reasons: Although Moses may have heard about the misadventures of Job when he stayed in Midian Ex 3: As insignificant details disappear very quickly after the death of protagonists, we can assume that Job died shortly c. Did Moses meet Job? That is unlikely because as he was afraid to be killed by Egyptian soldiers Ex 2: In addition, he had not yet been appointed for reporting God's words Ex 4: Job's life should be around The Septuagint gives an amazing detail at the end of the book of Job: Now Job lived after his calamity years, and all the years he lived were years.
And it has been written that he will rise again with those whom Jehovah raises up. And formerly his name was Jobab This late comment c. If one supposes an average of 30 years per generation Gn Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, etc. As Job was an eminent character at that time he was probably considered as a sheik [of Bozrah]. However he was not an Edomite because he lived in the land of Uz, not Edom, and he was accomplishing faithfully several points of Jehovah's worship Job 1: Once more, archaeologists turn their lack of evidence into an evidence of lack.
First of all, one should be aware that geographical, linguistic and ethnic areas overlap only partially and that they were defined mainly by Babylonian scribes. For example, Mesopotamia is an area which was defined by Greeks mesopotamia is a Greek translation of the Babylonian area called "[land] between the [two] rivers" but the Mesopotamians the inhabitants of Mesopotamia are never 30 After taking an Arabian wife, he became father to a son whose name was Ennon.
But he himself was the son of his father Zare, a son of the sons of Esau, but [was the son] of his mother Bosorra [Bozra], so that he was the 5th [in line] from Abraham. And these are the kings that reigned in Edom, of which country he also was ruler: But the friends that came to him [were] Eliphaz, of the sons of Esau, king of the Thaimanites; Bildad the tyrant of the Sauchites; Sophar the king of the Minites Job Journal of Biblical Literature The northern part of their country has been called the "land of Akkad" and the southern part, the "land of Sumer".
In time, the land of Akkad became Assyria north and Babylonia south and the land of Sumer was encompassed inside the Babylonian empire, which was ruled by the Kassites to the north and by people of Sea-land to the south: However he was not a Sumerian nor a Babylonian but a Hebrew Gn Actually most of the inhabitants of Sumer were not Sumerians and their language and ethnic background collapsed in BCE.
Actually the relationship between ethnicity and geographical area have changed. The precision "Ur of the Chaldeans" Gn Chaldea refers to a region in the south of Babylonia.
The Septuagint translated the phrase "Ur of the Chaldeans" as "country of the Chaldeans," which refers to a geographical area, not to an ethnic area. According to Strabo, a Greek geographer: There is also a tribe of the Chaldaeans, and a territory inhabited by them, in the neighbourhood of the Arabians and of the Persian Sea, as it is called.
There are also several tribes of the Chaldaean astronomers. The location of the Chaldeans is related to a profession not an ethnic group.
Herodotus also described the Chaldeans as priests- astronomers and not as an ethnic group apart The Histories I: The Chaldeans are relatively poorly known. Chaldea and Sumer Shinar are merely geographical designations because despite the land of his birth being Chaldea, Abraham was not a Chaldean.
Similarly, although he lived in the land of Sumer he was not a Sumerian. He was in fact a son of Eber, or a Hebrew36 Gn Shinar was a region south of Mesopotamia composed of at least three major cities In time the name Babylon came to mean the whole of Babylonia Dn 1: Thus Hebrew transcription of the name Sumer is quite close to its pronunciation in the early 2nd millennium BCE Shinar.
Transcription and translation of a few Sumerian names of the 3rd millennium BCE: Harrassowitz Verlag pp. Society of Biblical Literature pp. Robet Laffont pp. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta Leuven Ed. Cerf p. RA Akkad? Akad Arkad Gn Erek Orek Gn Perat Euphrates Gn 2: HAL Idiglat?
Hiddeqel Tigris Gn 2: These political upheavals caused serious economic difficulties which pushed some Chaldean groups to perform raids on countries still having some wealth like the region of Sodom. Archaeologists claim that the area south of Canaan was insignificant at that time and therefore devoid of wealth. According to the Bible, there were many goods in the region of Sodom Gn The exact meaning of these old names is uncertain but presumably they are of Semitic origin The historical existence of Sodom and Gomorrah is still in dispute by archaeologists, as little archaeological evidence has ever been found in the regions where they were supposedly situated.
Among scholars who locate the cities of the Plain in the southern area of the Dead Sea, there are some who posit that Sodom, Gomorrah, and other cities were submerged by rising waters. Likewise the Sumerian word E. For Sumerians, NAM. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy American Schools of Oriental Research p. Syria 8: One of the inscriptions that accompanies the painting describes the arrival of 48B. Autrement pp. Galena, the material for the black eye-paint, was likely produced in this region53, which would then be called Moab Mw-i-b-w by Egyptians from Ramses II This name change is consistent with the biblical text since the former region of Sodom Gn Moab was Lot's firstborn who dwelt near Sodom Gn The Beni Hasan tomb painting may represent an official contact between Egypt and a sheik of the Horite dwelling in the land of Edom Gn According to the famous geographer Strabo Many other evidences are produced to show that the country is fiery; for near Masada are to be seen rugged rocks that have been scorched, as also, in many places, fissures and ashy soil, and drops of pitch that emit foul odours to a great distance, and ruined settlements here and there; and therefore people believe the oft-repeated assertions of the local inhabitants, that there were once 13 inhabited cities in that region of which Sodom was the metropolis, but that a circuit of about 60 stadia of that city escaped unharmed; and that by reason of earthquakes and of eruptions of fire and of hot waters containing asphalt and sulphur, the lake burst its bounds, and rocks were enveloped with fire; and, as for the cities, some were swallowed up and others were abandoned by such as were able to escape Geography XVI: Among the place names appearing in the partial geographical atlas found at Ebla c.
Eisenbrauns pp. Cultures in Contact: Metropolitan Museum of Art pp. The names of a few cities are recognizable56 on this ancient path from north to south 57 such as Sodom, Admah and Zeboiim Gn The major disagreement between archaeologists and historians, concerning the old periods of history before BCE, is about what can really be considered a proof.
It is particularly evident with nomadic or semi-nomadic kingdoms because they have left no archaeological trace, except some pottery, although the population of these nomadic kingdoms was of the same order of magnitude as that of the great empires of the time Babylonian, Assyrian, Elamite, etc.
Actually we know only the nomadic kingdoms that had contact with old empires through wars or commercial contracts such as those of the Haneans, Benjaminites, Suteans c.
With the nomadic kingdoms Aramean, Chaldean, Edomite, etc. We know that Aramean kingdoms in Syria were founded by Aramean tribes which came from Lower Mesopotamia Joshua then said to all the people: Yahweh, the God of Israel, says this, "From time immemorial, your ancestors, Terah, father of Abraham and Nahor, lived beyond the Euphrates, and served other gods.
I then brought your ancestor Abraham from beyond the Euphrates and led him through the length and breadth of Canaan. I increased his descendants and I gave him Isaac Jos My father was a wandering Aramean, who went down to Egypt with a small group of men, and stayed there, until he there became a great, powerful and numerous nation Dt X 4 sa-damki, TM. An Empire Inscribed in Clay.
New York, Ed. Robert Laffont pp.
The term Aram designated the country of the Arameans at that time: This country is therefore very ancient It appears as a toponym A-ra-muki in an inscription at Ebla listing geographical names c. Archaeological and biblical data are consistent: He Neferti was concerned for what would happen in the land.
He thinks about the condition of the east. All happiness has gone away, the land is cast down in trouble because of those feeders, Asiatics Styw who are throughout the land. A fortress is deprived of another beside it, the guards do not pay attention of it When Idrimi fled to the south of Syria, he met the Sutu [Suteans], and then lived 7 years with the Habiru [Hebrews] in the country of Ki-in-a-nimki [Canaan] This term Canaan, which is Semitic, does not appear in Egyptian texts except perhaps as 'Sand Dwellers' 70, moreover, because of migration, it has designated different areas according to the time: Lebanon at the time of Ebla71, c.
Although the Aramean tribes began 65 E. Analecta , , pp. Oxford University Press pp. A historical geography Philadelphia Ed. The Westminste Press pp. Canaanites London Ed. British Museum p. There is the same problem with Edomite kingdoms73 because Edomite remains are constituted only from pottery which is not datable, except occasionally by stratigraphy combined with the carbon dating c.
According to the archaeological excavations of in southern Jordan, the kingdom of Edom would have appeared suddenly from nowhere! Distribution of different styles of pottery in the Southern Levant Although archaeologists are very critical about ancient writings which place the biblical Edomite kingdom six centuries earlier, all their "scientific" conclusions are in fact only scholarly guesses or conjectures: Antiquity A Preliminary Study in: BASOR pp.
The reasoning is therefore fully circular. For example, Kushu is generally taken to be south of Shutu[m] later Moab , in what became Edom, between the eventual Moab and Midiam80, despite there being no archaeological evidence, but when Pepi I led a military expedition to southern Palestine during his 18th census year 30 he recruited a few hundred fighters81 as can be inferred from a relief at Deshasheh showing an unidentifiable walled city82 in Kushu or Shutu[m]?
Similarly a scene in the Tomb of Inyotef83 at Thebes , who was Overseer of the audience chamber in the reign of Senwosret I shows several representations of Asiatic women wearing their multi-coloured dress see following , who were dwelling in a walled city located in the south of Canaan84 Kushu or Shutu? Palestine Exploration Quarterly Umm al-Biyara: Excavations by Crystal-M. Bennett in Petra P. Bienkowski, pp. Princeton University Press pp. Presses Universitaires de France pp.
Doubleday Die Wandmalereien der XI. Zabern , p. Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12 , pp. Even doubts are not sure! The safest conclusion about the ancient nomadic kingdoms before BCE is by relying on historical documents, including the Bible because it has proven its reliability Gn The first kings of Edom were tribal leaders who had neither capital nor palace according to the Bible Gn After the kings Saul and David defeated the Edomite kings during the 11th century BCE, the town of Bozrah was fortified with towers and these nomads became sedentary, living in houses instead of tents.
Thus, when the Bible says: The cattle were plowing and the donkeys were grazing beside them when the Sabaeans attacked and took them, and they killed the servants with the sword The Chaldeans formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and took 85 E.
The Bible explains when and why the kingdom of Edom disappeared, in addition, without hardly a trace. Because of its wickedness, Edom was to become like Sodom and Gomorrah, uninhabited for all time Jr The history of Edom and Ammon is very poorly known but biblical data are extremely accurate thus a seal dated c. Ezk Jr Edom was then embedded in the satrapy of Arabia 5th in Behistun inscription. The Ezr 1: We have been shattered, but we will return and rebuild the ruins, this is Ml 1: They will build, but I will tear down, and they will be called Zc 7: Archaeological investigations made in order to reconstruct the past of the Edomite kingdom are illusory because, according to the remaining historical testimonies91, there is almost nothing left.
The city was gradually abandoned and probably looted by the 86 C. All these historical, geographical and chronological details regarding many kingdoms, whose situations were extremely complex and changing, prove that the writing of the biblical text had to be done at the time of the facts. In addition, their complexity involved a long report 1Ch 9: Gallimard pp. Given the paucity of historical evidence, the history of the Nabataean kingdom remains controversial If the dating of Edomite and Chaldean kingdoms is controversial it is the same for the Sabaean kingdom.
According to the Bible: Shem was the father of Arpachshad who was the father of Kainan who was the father of Shelah who was the father of Eber who was the father of Joktan who [lived c. In the beginning of our common era the kingdom of Sheba still existed93 and according to Strabo, a Greek geographer, philosopher and historian c. The extreme part of the country above-mentioned [Yemen] is occupied by the four largest tribes; by the Minaeans, on the side towards the Red Sea, whose largest city is Carna or Carnana; next to these, by the Sabaeans, whose metropolis is Mariaba [Marib]; third, by Cattabanians, whose territory extends down to the straits and the passage across the Arabian Gulf, and whose royal seat is called Tamna; and, farthest toward the east, the Chatramotitae, whose city is Sabata.
All these cities are ruled by monarchs and are prosperous, being beautifully adorned with both temples and royal palaces. And the houses are like those of the Egyptians in respect to the manner in which the timbers are joined together Cattabania produces frankincense, and Chatramotitis produces myrrh; and both these and the other aromatics are bartered to merchants.
These arrive there in 70 days from Aelana [Aqaba], Aelana is a city on the other recess of the Arabian Gulf, the recess near Gaza called Aelanites, as I have said before, but the Gerrhaeans arrive at Chatramotitis in 40 days Geography The kingdom of Sheba was located at the far south of Arabia Yemen , the "ends of the earth" for the Jews at that time, that's why Jesus said: On Judgement Day the Queen of the South will appear against this generation and be its condemnation, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon Mt Samsi, the queen of Arabia who had acted against the oath by Shamash Although the Kingdom of Sheba already appeared in Assyrian sources in the 8th century BCE, this benchmark was not considered sufficient for archaeologists to date the early history of ancient South Arabia, because the first absolutely reliable dating starts with the military campaign of Aelius Gallus in 25 BCE, and the mention of the king Ilasaros.
For earlier times the chronology had to be established on the basis of a comparison of the Old South Arabian finds with those from other regions, through palaeography, on the basis of the reconstructed sequence of kings and by Carbon dating.
Here two schools of thought have essentially evolved: At the end of the 19th century E. Glaser and F. In J. She also supported this new "Short Chronology" by means of paleaeographic analysis of the forms of Old South Arabian letters.
On 92 P.
Fayad pp. Lundin and H. Recent excavations have thus shown that the ancient South Arabian script primary endpoint of civilization should in fact go back to BCE96, 8 centuries earlier than archaeologists believed before ! In addition, some temples in the region, like that of Almaqah, Lord of Bar'an near Marib, west of Hadramawt , or that of Raybun97 east of Hadramawt , were founded from the 10th century BCE Thus, the first assertions of archaeologists were only the result of their ignorance.
The history of this region is still poorly known, for example, more than 10, graves dated 3rd millennium BCE99 were recently inventoried in Yemen We know that Queen Hatshepsut during her exceptional expedition to the kingdom of Punt BCE brought numerous myrrh trees and frankincense Several details of her narrative enable the identifying of the kingdom of Punt to the kingdom of Sheba: In addition, gold from Punt is mentioned in the time of king Khufu and it is noteworthy that the artificial harbour of Khufu has been recently discovered at Wadi el-Jarf on the Red Sea km south of Suez.
Furthermore, a south-eastern track going from northern Egypt to Saudi Arabia through the Sinai, dating back to the reign of Ramses III, is a good clue proving that Punt was somewhere in the south of Saudi Arabia Yemen. As seen, Egyptian documents confirm the biblical data about the area occupied by the Edomites, first of all called Shutu[m] Sodom , then Seir, Edom and finally Idumea, and in addition contradict the statements of the archaeologists who claim that there was nothing especially in Bozrah before BCE.
Khartala, pp. Edizioni Plus pp. Actes Sud pp. Revue d'Egyptologie 64 pp. MAY, G. Oxford University Press, pp. The merchants of Sheba were K. The caravans of Tema [Tayma] look to them, and on them Sheba's convoys build their hopes Job 6: The kingdom of Sheba could also be reached by the Red Sea: King Solomon also made a fleet of ships in Ezion-geber, which is by Elath, on the shore of the Red Sea in the land of Edom.
Hiram sent his own servants with the fleet of ships, experienced seamen, to serve along with the servants of Solomon. They went to Ophir and took from there talents of gold and brought it to King Solomon. Now the queen of Sheba heard the report about Solomon in connection with the name of Jehovah, so she came to test him with perplexing questions. She arrived in Jerusalem with a very impressive entourage, with camels carrying balsam oil and great quantities of gold and precious stones 1Ki 9: Two products of Sheba were particularly appreciated: Herodotus specified c.
Most archaeologists before believed that Ophir was a fairy tale land, but an ostracon opposite figure with "gold of Ophir" c. Most archaeologists believed that major trade trips between Mesopotamia and Canaan were mythical despite the fact that around BCE a trip of km between Uruk and Lebanon is already mentioned Epic of Gilgamesh III: However, several archaeological surveys since have shown that these trips were quite frequent The patriarch Ayyab is mostly presented as a man of integrity, rich and respected.
His hometown Bozrah would become the capital of Edom after BCE was at the crossroads of trade routes at his time c. This region formerly known as Shutum by Egyptians in the execration texts was rich and led by sheiks called Hyksos "ruler of the foreign lands".
The term Chaldean Job 1: Given that the biography of Job is very brief, we know neither his genealogy but Uz was likely his forefather , nor the name of his wife but it's the same with Noah's wife , his exact age is not specified but he received a bonus of years, the double that he had , it was quickly completed and distorted, firstly by the Septuagint c.
Eerdmans pp. Brill, pp. If only my accuser had written out the charges in a document Job In consequence, Rabbi Simeon ben Laqish c.
In his view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. This absurd conclusion echoed today by many biblical scholars had been prophesied in the very text of Job 5: For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God, for it is written: He catches the wise in their own cunning.
And again: Jehovah knows that the reasonings of the wise men are futile 1Co 3: Studies on the Book of Job, generally of an impressive erudition, usually claim that whereas it includes ancient elements of badly defined origin, it was written later probably around the 6th century BCE. Actually this approximation is very conjectural. This document shows that at this time when the Hebrews were working in Egypt, according to the Bible there were many Asiatics from Canaan who were working for Egyptian masters.
The document further indicates that these Asiatic names were systematically changed into Egyptian names, which is consistent with the Egyptian custom of that time, as stated in the biblical text in the case of Joseph Gn Another comprehensive study which claim also that Job is above all "a theological poem" written around the mid 5th century BCE, concluded that Job had to have lived in Hauran instead of Edom through an in-depth etymological analysis of names, like the name Bildad which would come from an ancient Apil-dHadad found in Nuzu Once more this conclusion, based on an uncertain etymological analysis, is speculative because of the very few documents of that time.