Discover librarian-selected research resources on Multiple Intelligences from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals. The best book of course is Howard Gardner's book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences book. Read 47 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The most complete account of the theory and application of M.
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Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice [Howard E. Q.Q. derived from an 'intelligence test,' Gardner's book is a refreshing experience and . Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences and millions of other books are available for site Kindle. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Paperback – March 29, Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences has been hailed by educators for. Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice. Howard Gardner's brilliant conception of individual competence has changed the face of education in the twenty-three years since the publication of his classic work, Frames of Mind. The first decade of research on MI.
Select Page Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education. Here we explore the theory of multiple intelligences; why it has found a ready audience amongst educationalists; and some of the issues around its conceptualization and realization. I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better place. Knowledge is not the same as morality, but we need to understand if we are to avoid past mistakes and move in productive directions. An important part of that understanding is knowing who we are and what we can do… Ultimately, we must synthesize our understandings for ourselves. The performance of understanding that try matters are the ones we carry out as human beings in an imperfect world which we can affect for good or for ill.
Gardner took into account people who displayed extraordinary abilities. His theory was backed by neuropsychological evidence that supports the existence of areas of the brain that specialize in processing particular types of information.
Intelligence quotia IQ had traditionally been accepted as the benchmark for assessing intelligence, with tests focusing on logical and linguistic intelligence mainly reading and writing. The emergence of the MI theory meant that intelligence may be measured in other ways. The theory allows for a broader scope when defining intelligence, giving consideration to the variety of ways in which humans think, learn and adapt to their environments.
Established definitions of IQ on the other hand, were considered too narrow. Gardner categorized eight primary types of intelligence: - Linguistic — dealing with spoken or written words - Musical — concerning rhythm, music, and hearing - Logical, mathematical — the ability to reason inductively or deductively and deal with abstractions and numbers - Spatial — in relation to vision and spatial awareness - Bodily-kinesthetic — dealing with movement and doing - Interpersonal — interacting with others - Intrapersonal — the relationship with oneself - Naturalistic — concerning nature, nurturing, and classification Another form of intelligence that has gained credibility is that of "emotional intelligence", or "EQ.
It is believed that the MI theory may have ramifications in terms of possible cultural or economic discrepancies when using traditional methods of assessing intelligence.
Instead of a "one-size-fits-all" approach, the MI theory is more culturally responsive. Detractors of the MI theory argue that that Gardner has no foundation on which to base his theory other than his own intuition and observations.
Eminent psychologist George Miller said that Gardner's theory was down to "hunch and opinion. The former professor of educational psychology at the University of Delaware pointed out that thousands of studies support the importance of IQ for school and job performance, and that IQ also correlates with life outcomes.
Despite this, due to its humanistic approach to acknowledging the contributions of each and every individual it has received widespread approval. Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system.
Howard Gardner initially formulated a list of seven intelligences. His listing was provisional. Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically.
This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms.
According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.
It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others.
Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together.
However, he still argues that it makes sense to think of two forms of personal intelligence. Gardner claimed that the seven intelligences rarely operate independently. They are used at the same time and tend to complement each other as people develop skills or solve problems. In essence Howard Gardner argued that he was making two essential claims about multiple intelligences. That: The theory is an account of human cognition in its fullness.
Human beings are organisms who possess a basic set of intelligences. People have a unique blend of intelligences.
These intelligences, according to Howard Gardner, are amoral — they can be put to constructive or destructive use. However, it has met with a strongly positive response from many educators. It has been embraced by a range of educational theorists and, significantly, applied by teachers and policymakers to the problems of schooling.
A number of schools in North America have looked to structure curricula according to the intelligences, and to design classrooms and even whole schools to reflect the understandings that Howard Gardner develops. The theory can also be found in use within pre-school, higher, vocational and adult education initiatives. This appeal was not, at first, obvious. At first blush, this diagnosis would appear to sound a death knell for formal education.
It is hard to teach one intelligence; what if there are seven? It is hard to enough to teach even when anything can be taught; what to do if there are distinct limits and strong constraints on human cognition and learning? What is more: Seven kinds of intelligence would allow seven ways to teach, rather than one.
And powerful constraints that exist in the mind can be mobilized to introduce a particular concept or whole system of thinking in a way that children are most likely to learn it and least likely to distort it. Paradoxically, constraints can be suggestive and ultimately freeing. Mindy L.
It also provides educators with a conceptual framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices. In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms.
Howard Gardner did not, initially, spell out the implications of his theory for educators in any detail. Subsequently, he has looked more closely at what the theory might mean for schooling practice e. The approach entails: A broad vision of education. All seven intelligences are needed to live life well. Teachers, therefore, need to attend to all intelligences, not just the first two that have been their tradition concern. Understanding entails taking knowledge gained in one setting and using it in another.
Developing local and flexible programmes. Looking to morality. While there are considerable benefits to developing understanding in relation to the disciplines, something more is needed. Are there additional intelligences? Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to three particular possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence.
Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is far more complex.
In doing so, I think it best to put aside the term spiritual, with its manifest and problematic connotations, and to speak instead of an intelligence that explores the nature of existence in its multifarious guises. Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety — often the most important variety — of an existential intelligence. However, empirical evidence is sparse — and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list.
He suggests that it is difficult to come to any consensual definition, but argues that it is possible to come to an understanding that takes exploration forward. If we accept the existence of a moral realm is it then possible to speak of moral intelligence?
The fulfilment of key roles certainly requires a range of human intelligences — including personal, linguistic, logical and perhaps existential — but it is fundamentally a statement about the kind of person that has developed to be. It is not, in itself, an intelligence. He has also opened the door to another possibility — especially that of existential intelligence — but the court is out on that one. Indeed, Gardner himself has listed some of the main issues and his responses xxiii-xxvii; Here, I want to focus on three key questions that have been raised in debates.
There are plenty of other questions around — but these would seem to be the most persistent : Are the criteria Howard Gardner employs adequate?
John White has argued that there are significant issues around the criteria that Howard Gardner employs. There are questions around the individual criteria, for example, do all intelligences involve symbol systems; how the criteria to be applied; and why these particular criteria are relevant.
Indeed, Howard Gardner himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgement involved. They can still point to a substantial tradition of research that demonstrates correlation between different abilities and argue for the existence of a general intelligence factor. Howard Gardner xxiv disputes much of the evidence and argues that it is not possible, as yet, to know how far intelligences actually correlate.
However, in contrast to Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg does not look strongly at the particular material that the person is processing.
Instead he looks to what he calls the componential, experiential and contextual facets of intelligence. A further set of criticisms centre around the specific intelligences that Howard Gardner identified.
For example, it can be argued that musical intelligence and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are better approached as talents they do not normally need to adapt to life demands. For the moment there is not a properly worked-through set of tests to identify and measure the different intelligences.
I once thought it possible to create a set of tests of each intelligence — an intelligence-fair version to be sure — and then simply to determine the correlation between the scores on the several tests.
I now believe that this can only be accomplished if someone developed several measures for each intelligence and then made sure that people were comfortable in dealing with the materials and methods used to measure each intelligence.