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The Aluminum Design Manual includes an aluminum structural musicmarkup.infoum .org for postings of Aluminum Design Manual errata. Aluminium Design Manual - The Aluminium Association - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The Specification for. Visit ASCE Publications at musicmarkup.info Aluminum Structural Design With. The Aluminum Design Manual. Fees Please.

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It includes criteria individual beams in buildings where the surround- for determining heat input. The fuel load density flashover: The variation of the heat- heat release rate: Heating conditions within an enclosure. Structural components. These heating conditions shall or flames under conditions of use and enables them relate to the fuel commodities and compartment character- to continue to perform a stipulated function.

The qualification testing methods in Section ments specified for the building occupancy. The analysis methods in Section 4. The deterioration in strength and stiffness of structural members shall be accounted for in the structural analysis. The foundation shall be designed to resist the fire characteristics. In such cases.

The specific heat of aluminum alloys is 0. Temperature except where determined from Section 4. Yield strengths cient to cause flashover.

When the analysis methods in Section 4. Where the heat release rate from the fire is sufficient to cause flashover.

In the case of a localized fire or a post. Interpolate for temperatures between those given in the table. The structural system shall be designed to sustain from the interior fire through the opening. The shape and local damage with the structural system as a whole remain- length of the flame projection and distance between the ing stable. The determination of the temperature versus time profile resulting from the fire shall include fuel load. The method in Section forces from the region exposed to fire to the final point of 4.

The analysis shall include both a num properties as given in Section 4. Table 4. The mechan.

Where the means ating the performance of individual members at elevated of providing the fire resistance requires the consideration temperatures during exposure to fire. It is permitted to model the thermal response of a com- erties of the structural elements and fire-resistive materials pression member using a one-dimensional heat trans- in accordance with Section 4.

Individual members shall be provided with adequate strength to resist the shears. The design-basis fire exposure shall be that deter. Connections shall develop the strength of the connected The methods of analysis in this section apply to evalu- members or the forces indicated above. The design strength of a tension member shall be tions.

Conformance of the structural system to these require- Boundary conditions and connection fixity in the analysis ments shall be demonstrated by constructing a mathemati- shall be representative of the proposed structural design.

The thermal response shall produce a temperature field in each structural element as a result of the design-basis fire 2 Compression members and shall incorporate temperature-dependent thermal prop. Structural members and components in aluminum struc- The design strength of a flexural member shall be tures shall be qualified for the rating period in conformance determined using the provisions of Chapter F with alu.

Heat input shall be determined from the design-basis fire defined in Section 4. The nominal strength Rn shall by thermal expansion throughout the range of anticipated be determined using the material properties given in elevated temperatures. Load effects in the structure shall be detemined by ture are identified from records. Test loads shall not exceed a factored load of 1. The structure shall be visually 5. Deformations shall be recorded at each load incre- Where structural performance depends on existing welds: Deformations shall be calculated at service loads.

The evaluation shall be documented by a written report b If welds do not meet the visual inspection criteria of that includes: AWS D1. The strength of members and connections from the structure and both: Lb need not be taken less than the maximum unbraced length The brace strength force or moment and stiffness kL permitted for the column based on the required force per unit displacement or moment per unit rotation axial strength Pr.

In Equation The required strength is For all braces. Lateral stability of beams shall The required stiffness is be provided by lateral bracing. The determi. For nodal braces equally spaced along the column: For LRFD. Lb need not be taken less than the maximum unbraced length Lateral braces shall be attached at or near the compres- permitted for the beam based on the required flex- sion flange.

For ASD. The values so deter- For ASD, mined shall be combined as follows: Alternatively, the stiff- b When nodal lateral bracing is used, the required strength ener may end a distance of 4tw from any beam flange that is is the sum of the values determined using Equations not directly attached to the torsional brace.

In Equa- 6. January II This Specification pro. Alclad H18 sheet. Kaufman documented minum structures. This cient greater than or equal to 1. The nominal strength The kt factor of 1. Specification provides resistance factors for building.

The kt factor of 1. In most instances the distri- sion than those given in this Section are given in the Alumi. The nominal the notch strength of a number of aluminum alloy-tempers strength is usually defined as a force or moment. These strengths are derived strengths Kaufman provide typical mechanical properties for established by multiplying strengths from tests of repre- many aluminum products at elevated temperatures.

Specified strengths are A. The sentative lots of material by the ratio of the specified ten- reduction in strength varies with alloy. The nomi. Alloy-tempers with notch-strength-to-yield-strength This Specification provides two methods of design: The notch strength is the ultimate tensile strength of a This Specification provides the nominal strength of alu. See the commentary to Section M. This reduction is made by dividing the ten- or exceed the required strength determined by analy.

Liquid penetrant inspection detects only surface flaws. Grade C is used. ASTM B 26 and B only require radiographic inspection be per- formed if the downloadr specifies such inspection. Since the heat-affected zone extends approxi. For non-heat treatable alloys. Where insufficient data are available. The welded therefore not included in this Specification. The quality standards are based on the following: ASTM B 26 and B section 20 both include options for liquid penetrant and radiographic inspection that may be specified by the downloadr.

Section Test methods used to determine mechanical properties tensile yield strengths are slightly less than the solution heat are summarized below: The strengths specified in ASTM B 26 Table 2 for sand Welded compressive yield strengths Fcyw and welded castings are for separately cast test bars and not for the shear ultimate strengths Fsuw are derived from the relation.

Castings are more prone to discontinuities than wrought products. Specification as those in the Aluminum Association Stan- mately 1 in. These alloy-tempers in the vicinity of a weld is illustrated by the typical distri. There are also other alloy-tempers Table A. B Grade A allows no discontinuities at all. The 2 tions for wrought products for example. The resulting variation in mechanical properties for example. Welded yield strengths dimensional standards tolerances as do ASTM specifica- are for 0.

If such inspection is specified. Welding causes local annealing. When Grade D is specified. For heat treatable alloys. Tables M. B has the same requirement. B 26 allows the downloadr to require that the strength of coupons cut from production This Specification addresses only aluminum bolts. Level 1 requiring the most frequent inspection radiographing every casting. Level 3 leaves the inspection filler metal comply with AWS A5. The strengths This Specification addresses only aluminum screws.

Standards and Data Table 6. Standards for Aluminum Sand and Perma. Inspection Level 2 requires A. Strengths given in Table A. This Specification addresses only aluminum rivets. Kaufman Figure 5. An example of a strength limit the sum of J for the open parts and J for the closed parts.

Formulas for calculating section proper- For building-type structures. For example. Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs. Resistance factors are less than or equal to 1. ASCE 7 Section 2. An example of a serviceability limit state is a deflection beyond which the c For shapes containing open parts and closed parts. The design strength fRn is the product of the resistance factor f and the nominal strength Rn.

The torsion constant J may be determined as follows: J is structure is unfit for service. Figure CB. The basis for load and resistance factor design is given by Ellingwood. The resistance of the struc- Figure CB. This is because safety or resistance factors account for the fact that actual dimen- sions may be less than nominal dimensions. To do so.

In Figure B. An out-of-straightness factor has not been applied LRFD. His The safety factor for column local buckling has been work is summarized in Tables CB. The stress-strain curve for arti- Solving for f ficially aged tempers those beginning with T5. This fore. Because a column out-of-straightness factor of 0. The reli. This probability is a function of the difference between mean matches the AISC Specification for rupture and other value of the resistance and the mean value of the load effect member limit states.

Parameters are: Table CB. Limit states are: Kim provided the method used in this Section for c Tapered thickness elements supported on both edges Fig- determining the slenderness ratio for members that have ure CB. For The mid-thickness radius of curved elements is used to such elements. The tapered flanges of American Standard channels in heat-treatable alloys has a strength slightly less than the and American Standard I beams meet this criterion. For this reason.

The slenderness ratio can be approximated Figure CB. For B. The elastic buckling analysis by Sharp shows B. The provisions in this Section are based on Sharp Although some post-buckling strength may exist. Once the slenderness ratio has been determined. In columns buckling about a principal axis that is not an Stiffening bulbs and other complex shapes may provide axis of symmetry for example. The strength of elements with The denominator in each of Equations B.

Galambos Figure 4. The weld-affected zone for transverse welds that supported on both longitudinal edges Ra. Ra is greater than 6t. Simple support is assumed for all elements. Kim showed that Section B.

Since elastic local buckling stresses January II The equivalent slenderness ratio Strengths determined using the provisions of this Sec. The buckling strength of actual shells. Sections B. The zone. The resulting a more accurate assessment of element support conditions strength of the web is based on Bleich The effect of imperfections Section B.

The coefficients in the formula for inelastic buckling When Section F. Tests indicate that this effect tends supported edge. Further study is required to and B. This is the optimum location for Section B. When the neutral axis is at the the strength of a stiffened element need not be limited to the mid-height of the element. Compression Edge Free B. The stiff- can be used to determine the compressive strength. The factor a accounts for the tion B.

The equivalent slenderness ratio however. The coefficients in the formula for inelastic buckling strength are assumed to be the same as for solid rectangu- B.

The elastic local buckling stress Fe for elements sup. Postbuckling strength is used in Sections B. This inter- of elastic local buckling stresses is provided in Chapter B. When the stiffener B. Section C.

Geometric imperfections could also be accounted for Bracing requirements given in Appendix 6 do not apply by applying equivalent notional loads to the structure to bracing that is included in the structural analysis per- that are a fraction of the gravity loads for nominally ver.

Since the Specifi. P-d effects must be cult to properly determine effective lengths. This can be addressed by using 0. Most structural analysis programs that purport to the effective length method is appropriate. The 0.

To determine if a program properly place of E in the analysis. The reason for factoring ASD loads by 1. This can be addressed by C. To produce the same overall result cation for Aluminum Structures does not establish erec. For ASD allowable stresses. The five factors listed in Section C. LRFD load level. To determine the eccentricities: Design- on the net section is not a limit state.

Yielding at a trans- verse weld is not a limit state. Hill and Brungraber showed c For angles connected only by one leg. Transverse the effect of the eccentricity is accounted for in the net effec- welds are welds with an axis perpendicular to the mem. The of load. In Figure CD. This is accounted for by using the net effec- from yielding across the net section is small.

For I beams connected only by gitudinally welded members is weld affected. The strength their flanges Figure CD. The eccentricity is the distance per- Figures CD. The eccentricity in member axis. A possible approach in this instance is to use tion and 1. The eccentric- ity in the other direction is determined from a section D.

If the entire cross section of the member is weld. The the weighted average thickness weighted by the length of the corresponding safety factors for bridge structures are 1.

Usually only part of the cross section of lon. The net section area for the bar shown in Figure the fastener closest to the unconnected leg to the neutral CD.

This is because the net section stress distribution across the section at the connection for usually exists over only a short portion of the overall length angles. Figure CD. For sheet and plate.

Chapuis and Galambos addressed the effective For point-symmetric sections such as cruciforms. For extrusions. The equivalent slender- E. Sharp are approximately the same. This is addressed in Section B. In the Specification. Since the flatness the buckling strength. Such columns are sometimes Because column member buckling strength E.

Sharp showed that has essentially the same strength as that for the perfectly the member buckling strength equations of Section E. Because the Specification includes the 0. Unlike member buckling.

AISC addresses out-of-straightness in steel column member buck. Sharp Figure 7. The effect of welding on element of a member is the sum of the local buckling strength of the strength is addressed in Section E. Transverse welds not at the ends of a column supported on both ends or in a cantilever column may appreciably decrease the member buckling strength.

Section E. Sharp showed that Section B. If a column has both longitudinal and transverse welds. Sharp devel- oped the strength equation given in Section E. Sharp showed E. These values can be quite conservative for test specimens ranged from 0. The compressive strength of portions of a column at the intersection of elements for example. To account for the reduction in strength in Brungraber and Clark investigated the strength of the weld-affected zone. More research is needed to establish accurate design the reduced stiffness that accompanies local buckling may rules for circumferentially welded.

Compressive tests determine the strength in such cases. The flatness tolerance for the other shapes. Apparently the circumferential welds can elements may buckle elastically without causing failure of cause more severe geometric imperfections in the thin- the member. Inflection points are not brace points. For this reason rational analysis must be of the effect of bracing the tension flange.

Using must also be checked at the location where the smaller ry is very conservative for moderate and high slenderness flange is subjected to its maximum compression. The formulas of Section F. A simple span beam restrained against movement lat- and F. For continuous beams there are no directly derived val- Winter showed a method for taking advantage ues of C1 and C2.

He derived the used in estimating the values of these coefficients for such elastic critical moment Me for pure bending for a singly applications.

The unconservative cases arise if the rate bending strengths for these cases. In the inelastic stress range the lateral-torsional buck- F. This strength increase can be accounted for by erally and vertically at the supports.

Cb should be taken calculations using rye shows that using rye is conservative. Cb is also to be taken as 1. If the moment varies over the Clark and Hill determined the lateral-torsional unbraced length. In equation CF. Because of this approximation. If the free end of a cantilever is torsionally braced.

Tests have shown this curve to be conserva- between brace points. To compute more accu- Kitipornchai The when the unbraced length is factored by a ky less than 1.

It can be shown that for loading as shown in Figure CF. A Kirby and Nethercot If the distrib. Use the same equation between about the bending axis. Selection of the proper equation for rye is illustrated by Figure CF. The approximation may ally with the beam if it should buckle. At point B for both beams. Figure CF. Use the same equation for point A if the distributed load is applied at the level of the neutral axis.

The approach for checking the moment at ing axis. Sc and J as though both flanges were the same as tion F. Use Equa- ry. This approximation is quite conservative when the tom flange of the beam and the load is free to move later- smaller flange is in compression.

At brace points the Bending Axis of doubly symmetric beams use Equation F. Equation F. The magnitudes of yo. This expression considers non-symmetry of the section about the bending axis as well as the location of the laterally applied load with respect to the shear center. The nominal strength expression was rearranged from the expression given in the Aluminum Design Manual but gives the same strength.

The approximate formula for j given in Equation F. The orientation of the axes and the cross-sectional nota- tion are illustrated in Figure CF. If Cw is not small compared to 0. Venant torsion. Equivalent slenderness ratios from and 1. The determined shape factors for yielding of 1. In the intermediate slenderness ratio range. Sharp Table 7. Cases 2. Clark and Rolf showed that the formula shown in Figure F. This is done to be consistent with Sec- Clark and Rolf showed that rectangular bars can tions F.

Sharp variation in stress across the width of the angle leg. The F. The wall thickness need not be uniform. This Specification uses 1. The upper set of lines. Since The lower set of lines. Formulas for determining bw are given in Part V. When is based on experimental work by Clark and Rolf The factor on yield was picked from curves of yield strengths at 0.

Yielding does not become apparent as soon as the calculated stress in the extreme fiber reaches the yield strength because the less highly stressed fibers near the center of the beam are still in the elastic range.

For larger Angle Size in. This results from the non-linear distribution of stress in the inelastic range. The constants 1. This is shown F. The shape factor on ultimate strength was deduced Figure CF. The higher Part V. See Section E. The distance c for a compres- Shape factors for aluminum are less than those for the rigid. The distance c for The shape factors for flat elements in flexure are the same a tensile flange is the distance to its extreme fiber because as the shape factors for solid rectangular shapes in F.

Kim improved the weighted average method accuracy for a variety of members. The effect of alloy on shape factor is not very large. For tubes with circumferential welds.

Sharp tested beams with longitudinal and trans. These are given in Section B. Simi- sions of Section G. This moment of inertia is multiplied by ture in the weld-affected area and the weighted average the ratio of the applied shear load to the shear load caus- shear strength of the welded and unwelded zones. The shear ing buckling to adjust the stiffener size for the actual load ultimate strength is divided by 1.

These formulas were used in the specifications tor of 1. Shear yielding in comparison with the stiffener size theoretically derived by the weld-affected area is not considered to be a limit state, Cook and Rockey Hartmann and Clark and since the maximum shear stress would have to occur over Sharp and Clark provide further background.

Since torsion The buckling strength of unstiffened flat webs is for a is usually constant along the cylinder length but transverse web with partial restraint against rotation at the attachment shear usually varies along the length, the transverse shear to the flanges. The corresponding value of the slenderness strength is taken as 1.

This treat- Becker The buckling strength in the inelastic range ment is similar to AISC If the analysis is not performed in accordance with Chapter C, using the interaction equation given in Section H.

Tubes loaded in torsion are not as sensitive to the effect of initial imperfections in the geometry as are tubes loaded in axial compression.

Battdorf, et. Fig- where ure CH. A coefficient of 2. A more accurate and less conservative value for long tubes is less than 2. The ordi- nate in this figure is a rearrangement of Equation H. The Since shear buckling cannot occur in a rod, Section H. Equations H.

Examples of longitudinally loaded fillet welds that are not end-loaded include: Aluminum welded connection types include groove welds, Menzemer and Iasconne established the shear fillet welds, plug and slot welds, and stud welds. Moore et al. Nelson and Rolf and Sharp et al. They used the same test method to determine shear strength. In the U. Skip to main content. Remember me.

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