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A formal appeal followed in November The appellate process involved clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure.
A panel of theologians analyzed testimony from witnesses.
The appellate court declared her innocent on 7 July Joan of Arc became a symbol of the Catholic League during the 16th century. Joan of Arc became a semi-legendary figure for the four centuries after her death. The main sources of information about her were chronicles. Five original manuscripts of her condemnation trial surfaced in old archives during the 19th century. Navigation menu Soon, historians also located the complete records of her rehabilitation trial, which contained sworn testimony from witnesses, and the original French notes for the Latin condemnation trial transcript.
Various contemporary letters also emerged, three of which carry the signature Jehanne in the unsteady hand of a person learning to write. Joan of Arc came from an obscure village and rose to prominence when she was a teenager, and she did so as an uneducated peasant. The French and English kings had justified the ongoing war through competing interpretations of inheritance law, first concerning Edward III's claim to the French throne and then Henry VI's.
The conflict had been a legalistic feud between two related royal families, but Joan transformed it along religious lines and gave meaning to appeals such as that of squire Jean de Metz when he asked, "Must the king be driven from the kingdom; and are we to be English?
The people who came after her in the five centuries since her death tried to make everything of her: She insisted, even when threatened with torture and faced with death by fire, that she was guided by voices from God. Voices or no voices, her achievements leave anyone who knows her story shaking his head in amazed wonder. From Christine de Pizan to the present, women have looked to Joan as a positive example of a brave and active woman.
Some of her most significant aid came from women. Finally, Anne of Burgundy , the duchess of Bedford and wife to the regent of England, declared Joan a virgin during pretrial inquiries. Joan of Arc Three separate vessels of the French Navy have been named after her, including a helicopter carrier that was retired from active service on 7 June At present, the French far-right political party Front National holds rallies at her statues, reproduces her image in the party's publications, and uses a tricolor flame partly symbolic of her martyrdom as its emblem.
This party's opponents sometimes satirize its appropriation of her image.
Joan of Arc's religious visions have remained an ongoing topic of interest. She identified Saint Margaret , Saint Catherine , and Saint Michael as the sources of her revelations , although there is some ambiguity as to which of several identically named saints she intended. Analysis of her visions is problematic since the main source of information on this topic is the condemnation trial transcript in which she defied customary courtroom procedure about a witness' oath and specifically refused to answer every question about her visions.
Report of Robert E. Lee on the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July , !
A Mans Field Guide to Women? She complained that a standard witness oath would conflict with an oath she had previously sworn to maintain confidentiality about meetings with her king. It remains unknown to what extent the surviving record may represent the fabrications of corrupt court officials or her own possible fabrications to protect state secrets.
A number of more recent scholars attempted to explain her visions in psychiatric or neurological terms. Potential diagnoses have included epilepsy , migraine , tuberculosis , and schizophrenia. Philip Mackowiak dismissed the possibility of schizophrenia and several other disorders Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and ergot poisoning in a chapter on Joan of Arc in his book Post-Mortem in Two experts who analysed the hypothesis of temporal lobe tuberculoma in the medical journal Neuropsychobiology expressed their misgivings about this claim in the following statement:.
It is difficult to draw final conclusions, but it would seem unlikely that widespread tuberculosis, a serious disease, was present in this "patient" whose life-style and activities would surely have been impossible had such a serious disease been present. He would have been familiar with the signs of madness because his own father, Charles VI, had suffered from it. Charles VI was popularly known as "Charles the Mad", and much of France's political and military decline during his reign could be attributed to the power vacuum that his episodes of insanity had produced.
The previous king had believed he was made of glass, a delusion no courtier had mistaken for a religious awakening.
Fears that King Charles VII would manifest the same insanity may have factored into the attempt to disinherit him at Troyes. This stigma was so persistent that contemporaries of the next generation would attribute to inherited madness the breakdown that England's King Henry VI was to suffer in The court of Charles VII was shrewd and skeptical on the subject of mental health. One should not lightly alter any policy because of conversation with a girl, a peasant She remained astute to the end of her life and the rehabilitation trial testimony frequently marvels at her astuteness:.
Often they [the judges] turned from one question to another, changing about, but, notwithstanding this, she answered prudently, and evinced a wonderful memory.
Her subtle replies under interrogation even forced the court to stop holding public sessions. In , a jar was found in a Paris pharmacy with the inscription "Remains found under the stake of Joan of Arc, virgin of Orleans. They are now in the Museum of Art and History in Chinon.
Carbon tests and various spectroscopic analyses were performed, and the results  determined that the remains come from an Egyptian mummy from the sixth to the third century BC. The charred appearance was the result of the embalming substances, not from combustion.
Large amounts of pine pollen were also found, consistent with the presence of resin used in mummification and some unburned linen was found and was determined to be similar to that used to wrap mummies.
The noted perfumers Guerlain and Jean Patou said that they could smell vanilla in the remains, also consistent with mummification. Apparently the mummy was part of the ingredients of medieval pharmacopoeia and it was relabeled in a time of French nationalism.
The purchasers appealed, including to Elizabeth II and the ring was allowed to remain in France. The ring was reportedly first passed to Cardinal Henry Beaufort , who attended Joan's trial and execution in The standard accounts of the life of Joan of Arc have been challenged by revisionist authors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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