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Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species.

His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century. His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance.

According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules. Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist. Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations.

The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells. The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus.

With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies. Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity.

For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism. Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus.

The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria. Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology.

Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species.

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Schlieden the first statement on cell theory. Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution of species. The concept of spontaneous origin of life was countered by Pasteur, who proposed the germ theory of disease. James D.

Watson and Francis H.

Crick discovered the structure of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid DNA in and this triggered a new ear of molecular biology. Astbury, a British scientist, first used and defined the term molecular biology in Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. Norman Ernest Borlaug won Nobel Prize in for his green revolution.

Ian Wilmut and Campbell produced the first live, healthy sheep clone, Dolly, form fully differentiated adult mammary cells in In an attempt to reap the fruits of genetic engineering , the U. Human Genome project in The project aims to identify all the approximate 30, genes in human DNA determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DAN. The scientific classification of organisms, including their naming and identification is called Taxonomy or Systematics.

Morphology is the aspect of biology that deals with the study of form, shape, size and structure of plants and animals. The study of morphology of internal systems or organs constitutes what is called Anatomy.

The historical change in the properties of a population of organisms over generations is called organic evolution and this branch of biology is considered as Evolutionary Biology. The study of fossils is called Palaeontology. The study of the structure and composition of cells and tissues under the microscope is called Cytology and Histology respectively. The branch of biology that deals with the mechanism of functioning of the life processes is referred to as Physiology.

Soil Science : Study of soil and its conservation. Pathology : The science dealing with the nature of diseases, their causes, symptoms and effect. Breeding : To produce improved varieties by selective mating. Veterinary medicine : Science dealing with the diseases of domesticated animals and their health care. Entomology : A branch of zoology deals that with the structure, habits andclassification of insects. Fishery : The occupation or industry of catching fish or other products of the sea, lakes or rivers.

Poultry Science : Science dealing with domestic fowls, such as chickens, Ducks and geese. Sericulture : The breeding and treatment of silkworms for producing raw silk. Apiculture : The rearing of bees, beekeeping for commercial purposes. Forestry : The science of developing and conserving forests.

Microbiology : The science dealing with the structure, function, uses of microscopic organisms. Food technology : Processing and preservation of foods.

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Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them. Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals. Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function.

Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells.

His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist.

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Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him. He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum.

Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature. Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things. Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution. He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology.

Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species. His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century.

His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance.

According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules. Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist. Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations.

The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells. The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus. With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies.

Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism.

Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus. The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria.

Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology. Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species. Schlieden the first statement on cell theory. Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution of species. The concept of spontaneous origin of life was countered by Pasteur, who proposed the germ theory of disease. James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick discovered the structure of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid DNA in and this triggered a new ear of molecular biology.

Astbury, a British scientist, first used and defined the term molecular biology in Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. Norman Ernest Borlaug won Nobel Prize in for his green revolution. Ian Wilmut and Campbell produced the first live, healthy sheep clone, Dolly, form fully differentiated adult mammary cells in In an attempt to reap the fruits of genetic engineering , the U. Their skin may appear as either cold or warm, depending on the environment from which they have been taken for examination.

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If any one of them is picked up from a hibernaculum or caught beside a cold body of water, it is likely that the skin will be cold. This is the reason for calling them as poikilothermous. Alternatively, if an animal is examined during warm afternoon while it was basking in the sun, its skin will appear warm. Actually, these animals save energy for utilizing it in other functions like reproduction. Mammals, birds and a few fishes e. They have developed insulating devices, such as fat, hair, feathers, etc.

They are endothermic. Their body temperature remains relatively constant, which is usually higher then that of the environment. For this reason they are called homeothermous. Mammals, birds and a few fishes are endothermic and homeothermous because they retain thermal energy with the aid of thermoreceptors. Homeothermy in Humans Being a mammal we are endothermic and homoeothermic as well. To maintain the body temperature, which is 37 0 C This can be compared with the functioning of the thermostat of a room air-conditioner machine.

Usually , the temperature of the thermostat is set at 21 0 C F. If the temperature of the room rises sufficiently above the set point, a sensor present within the thermostat detects the change and activates the effector of the machine. The air-conditioner then reverses the deviation from the set point of the thermostat.

Finally, the room temperature is controlled at the set point of the thermostat. Our skin contains two types of sensory neurons. They are sensitive to the changes in temperature outside our bodies. They are termed as thermoreceptors.

Some of them are sensitive to cooler temperatures and are called cold receptors, while the others are sensitive to warmer temperatures and are called warm receptors. The former set is stimulated by fall in temperature and the rise in temperature.

Conversely, warming inhibits cold receptors and cooling inhibits warm receptors. The warm receptors are located immediately below the epidermis skin , while the cold receptors are located slightly deeper in the dermis.

We have thermoreceptors also within the hypothalamus of our brain. These receptors monitor the temperature of the circulating blood and send the information of the bodys internal core temperature to the brain. The thermoreceptors of the skin sense, say for example , any rise in external temperature caused by a perturbing factor like the sun, and send the message to the thermoreceptors of the hypothalamus, which detect the change in the accompanying body temperature.

The hypothalamus now responds by activating the effector, that is, the sweat glands and the blood vessels of the skin. As a result, release of sweat and dilation of the blood vessels are initiated, which cause cooling and diffusion of body temperature.

In other words, the set point is defended by the hypothalamus. Since the regulation of temperature is by cooling the body, in this case, it is in the negative side or reverse direction.

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This type of control system is called negative feedback loop. Biochemical Pathways are Tightly Regulated: Enzyme activity is sensitive to the presence of specific substances that bind to the enzymes. A substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity is called an inhibitor, if it increases the activity of an enzyme it becomes an activator. The regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the allosteric site on the enzyme that catalyses the first reaction in the pathway.

In the metabolic pathways, the product of one reaction may serve as the substarate for the next reaction. When necessary, the final end product of one pathway may become the allosteric inhibitor for the action of the first enzyme of that pathway. This method of regulating mechanism is called feedback mechanism. Thus the regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the feedback mechanism. Adaptation Adaptation to the environment is one of the most distinctive features of living beings.

Adaptation may be defined as any characteristic of an organism, which makes the organism better suited to its environment. Adaptation may be structural, physiological or behavioural in response to the environment. Types of Adaptations: Long term Adaptations: Short term adaptations: They are temporary changes that are produced in response to specific conditions and are meant for adjustment to unfavourable conditions.

It helps in protecting the underlying tissue from ultra violet rays of the sun. In favourable conditions dormancy is broken and the seeds germinate.

It keeps its metabolic rate very low. It survives on stored fats. A living individual contains over types of biomolecules. Sodium chloride occurs in concentration of 0. Unit of measurement in cell biology is nanometer or millimicron.

Schiff reagent is specific for DNA. This reagent was developed by Schiff. In ancient India which of the following is regarded as God of Medicine? Who was the first physician in ancient India who developed the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity? Which of the following is regarded as Father of surgery?

Which of the following is honoured as Father of anatomy? A plant classified as dicot but without visible cotyledon is: Science dealing with nose and olfactory organs is 1 Rhinology 2 Radiology 3 Dermatology 4 Kinesiology 7. The physical sufferings are often caused by bad deeds in the previous birth. It may be called: Herpetology is study of: Lightest wood is: Rediscovered Mendels contribution ii T.

Morgan B. Discovered that genes are made up of D. Avery C. Introduced the term genetics iv Hugo de Vries D. Match the names of branches of science listed under Column I with the fields of study given under Column II. Choose the correct combination of alphabets: Mycology P. Study of bird B. Ornithology Q. Study of worms C. Herpetology R. Study of fishes D.

Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A. The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P.

Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S. Philosophic Zoologique E. Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F.

Scientist associated with Indian Palaeobotany is: Maheswari 2 Birbal Sahni 3 M. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.

Scientist and antibiotics are: Choose the correct pair: Prevention of deterioration of human race through reducing birth rate among defective individuals is [TNPCEE] 1 Positive euthenics 2 Negative euthenics 3 Negative euthenics 4 Positive euthenics Which one of the following sequence is correct: Match the columns and pick up the correct combination: Study of ants in: Branch of botany connected with food, fibre and wood yielding plants is: Acarology is study of: For solving a scientific problem which is not correct 1 Suaruta 2 Charaka 3 Dhanvantari 4 Atreya Science of engineering and technology which is applied to life sciences is: Match the column I and II and choose the correct answer: All living beings show: Bending of a shoot towards light is: Physical basis of life is: Fuelgen test is specific for: Which type of organisation is found in only living beings: Organisation formed by individuals of a species is: Number of chemicals found in living cell is: Which one is a micromolecule: Salt concentration of blood is: Glucose concentration of blood for normal body function is: Energy currency of a cell is: This is due to: During nerve conduction, electric energy is produced.

What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains. If feedback inhibition a metabolic pathway gets Switched off by: ACTH consists..

Hemocyanin of snail consists of.. An example of short term adaptation is a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation. The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Who pointed out that Life results due to a relationship of molecules and is not the property of any one molecule: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.

Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day? Philosophic zoologique was written by: The book Micrographia was written by: Hooker 5.

Which of the following is connecting link between reptiles and birds? Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis? Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: World AIDs day is organised every year on: This word was produced by A.

Candolle in his book Theories elementaire de la botanique Theory of elementary botany Taxonomy includes study of following 4 points 1 Identification - Identification of living organisms 2 Nomenclature - Nomenclature of living organism 3 Classification - Classifications of living organisms in groups 4 Affinities - Study of inter relationship between living organisms Systematics: Branch related with taxonomy 1 The term Systematics was proposed by Linnaeus 2 In includes description of external morphological characters of plants or living organisms.

Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms.

New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism. New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters.

Some Informations: Maximum diversity found in tropical rain forests. Second maximum diversity found in coral reefs Practical significance of taxonomy is Identification of unknown organism.

Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. For eg. Caryophyllum-Caryophyllum sexatilis folis gramineus unbellatis corymbis Binomial system: Linnaeus used this nomenclature system for the first time on large scale and proposed scientific name of all the plants and animals.

Linnaeus proposed scientific name of plants in his book Species plantarum. It was published on 1 May So this was the initiation of binomial system for plants. So any name proposed for plants before this date is not accepted today.

Linnaeus proposed scientific name of animals in his boo Systema naturae 10th edition. This 10th edition of Systema naturae was published on 1 August So initiation of binomial system for animals is believed to be started on 1 Aug Principle of Priority: The nomenclature is done by principle of priority.

If two names re proposed for any plant after the , the valid name is the earlier name proposed just after 1 May, After revision it was republished in Naja naja Indian cobra , Rattus rattus Rat 3 Length of generic name or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters.

Mangifera indica Exception - Riccia pathankotensis- More than 12 letters.

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According to ICBN this name is not valid but his name was proposed before , so it is valid. ICBN 4 First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter. Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter. Isoetes Pntti 5 When written with free hand or typed, then generic name sand specific name should be separately underlined. But during name shold be italized.

Mangifera indica Lin. Tsuga candensis Lin. Salisbury Note: Linnaeus names this plane as Pinus Canadensis 9 Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages. Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based.

Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype.

Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype. Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype.

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Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype. Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype.

It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species eg. Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification.

The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. According to A. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.

For example: If the name of plants starts from A, then it is placed in a- group. Similarly if it starts with B, then it is placed in B-group iv This is not a true classification. It has only one application: Listing of flora. Flora Plants growing in a particular area.

Flora of Rajasthan Two books in which flora of India is written: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i. Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance.

In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered. In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group. In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg. Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia.

He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria. In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc. Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i.

In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters. They have many dissimilarities. Natural classification is of two types a Natural formal b Natural phylogenetic a Natural formal In this classification, the phylogeny of the plant is not considered i. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution.

Proposed the term Phylogeny Ernest haeckel: Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification.

Proposed by Sokel and Sneath. In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities. In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance. While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc.

They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Adolf Mayer: First proposed the term Taxon - for animals H. First proposed the term Taxon for plants The classification of any plant or animal is written is descending order. Hierarchy - Descending arrangement of taxonomic categories is known as hierarchy.

Smallest taxonomic category It is basis unit of classification. Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy. In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology.

Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves.

Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i. But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: According to Linaneus species is un- changeable i.

The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. According to this theory All the living organisms are created by God Every life is created by God and God gave the basis size and shape of all living organisms, they are still present in their actual former form. But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation. And these changes are know as evolution.

D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species.

Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present. These are called Polytypic species or Macrospecies eg. Brassica aleracea Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol Polytypic Species are of three types Biotype - Member o same species inhabiting similar environment and having some genetic variations are known as biotypes.

Variations found in these members are permanent. These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species.

Ecotypes -Members of same species inhabiting different environment and having some genetic variations are known as ecotypes. Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Crow Corvus splendense found in different regions are ecotypes of one species Corvus splendense splendense - Indian crow Corvus splendense insolense - Mynamer crow Corvus splendense protegatus - Srilankan crow Ecads or Ecophense - members of same species having some non genetic variations due to environment These variations re temporary.

Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology. They are called as linneon species. They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species.

Most of species in taxonomy are linneon species 2 Microspecies or Joardans species: Those species in which variations are very less. They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations.

Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species. Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species.

Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions.

The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg. Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils. Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently.

It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants. B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc. C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope. It is based on all the informations or data available about plants.

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D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy. Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels.

E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy. It is based on the chemical constitution of plants. The fragrance and taste vary from species to species.

The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc. F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes. Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters.